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Ecuatii Si Inecuatii

Ecuatii Si Inecuatii

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Published by: stanculeanu on Oct 01, 2009
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Ecuatii si inecuatii trigonometriceI. Ecuatii trigonometrice
Ecuatiile ce contin necunoscute sub semnul functiilor trigonometrice se numesc ecuatiitrigonometrice.Cele mai simple ecuatii trigonometrice sunt ecuatiile de tipulsin
x
=
a,
cos
x
=
a,
tg
x
=
a,
ctg
x
=
a, a
R
.
(1)Cum rezolvarea ecuatiilor trigonometrice se reduce la rezolvarea ecuatiilor de tipul (1) (uti-lizand diferite transformari), vom aminti afirmatiile de baza referitor solutiile ecuatiilor (1).
Afirmatia 1.
Ecuatiasin
x
=
a, a
R
,
(2)pentru
|
a
|
>
1 solutii nu are, iar pentru
|
a
|
1 multimea solutiilor ei se contine in formula
x
= (
1)
n
arcsin
a
+
πn, n
Z
,
(3)unde arcsin
a
[
π
2
;
π
2
] este unghiul, sinusul carui este egal cu
a
, iar
Z
desemneaza multimeanumerelor intregi, sau, echivalent (tinand seama de paritatea lui
n
), in totaliatea
x
= arcsin
a
+ 2
πk,x
=
π
arcsin
a
+ 2
πk,k
Z
.
(4)
Nota 1.
Daca in ecuatia (2)
a
∈ {
0;
1;1
}
solutiile ei (3) se scriu mai simplu, si anumesin
x
= 0
x
=
πn, n
Z
,
sin
x
= 1
x
=
π
2+ 2
πn, n
Z
,
sin
x
=
1
x
=
π
2+ 2
πn, n
Z
.
Exemplul 1.
Sa se rezolve ecuatiile
a
) sin
x
=
32;
b
) sin
x
=
13;
c
) sin
x
=
11
2
.
Rezolvare.
a) Cum
32
1, conform (3) solutiile ecuatiei date sunt
x
= (
1)
n
arcsin
32+
πn, n
Z
,
0
Copyrightc
1999 ONG TCV Scoala Virtuala a Tanarului Matematician http://math.ournet.md
1
 
sau tinand seama ca arcsin
32=
π
3, se obtine
x
= (
1)
n
π
6+
πn, n
Z
.
b) Similar exemplului a) se obtine
x
= (
1)
n
arcsin
13
+
πn, n
Z
sau, tinand seamaarcsinus ca functia este o functie impara,
x
= (
1)
n
+1
arcsin13+
πn, n
Z
.
c) Cum
11
2
>
1, rezulta ca ecuatia data nu are solutii.
Afirmatia 2.
Ecuatiacos
x
=
a
(5)pentru
|
a
|
>
1 nu are solutii, iar pentru
|
a
|
1 multimea solutiilor ei se contine in formula
x
=
±
arccos
a
+ 2
πn, n
Z
,
(6)unde arccos
a
[0;
π
] este unghiul cosinusul caruia este egal cu
a
.
Nota 2.
Daca in ecutia (5)
a
∈ {
0;1;
1
}
solutiile ei (6) se scriu mai simplu, si anumecos
x
= 0
x
=
π
2+
πn, n
Z
,
cos
x
= 1
x
= 2
πn, n
Z
,
cos
x
=
1
x
=
π
+ 2
πn, n
Z
.
Exemplul 2.
Sa se rezolve ecuatiile:
a
) cos
x
=
12;
b
) cos
x
=23;
c
) cos
x
=
3 + 12
.
Rezolvare.
a) Cum
12
1, conform (6) solutiile ecuatiei date sunt
x
=
±
arccos
12
+2
πn, n
N
, sau tinand seama ca arccos
12
=2
π
3, se obtine
x
=
±
2
π
3+ 2
πn, n
Z
.b) Similar exemplului a) se obtine
x
=
±
arccos23+ 2
πn, n
Z
.c) Cum
3 + 12
>
1, ecuatia data nu are solutii.
Afirmatia 3.
Ecuatiatg
x
=
a, a
R
(7)are solutiile
x
= arctg
a
+
πn, n
Z
.
(8)
0
Copyrightc
1999 ONG TCV Scoala Virtuala a Tanarului Matematician http://math.ournet.md
2
 
unde arctg
a
(
π
2
;
π
2
) este unghiul tangentei caruia este egala cu
a
.
Afirmatia 4.
Ecuatiactg
x
=
a, a
R
(9)are solutiile
x
= arcctg
a
+
πn, n
Z
,
(10)unde arcctg
a
(0;
π
) este unghiul, cotangenta caruia este egal cu
a
.
Exemplul 3.
Sa se rezolve ecuatiile
a
) tg
x
= 1;
b
) tg
x
=
2;
c
) ctg
x
=
1;
d
) ctg
x
= 3
.
Rezolvare.
a) Conform (8) solutiile ecuatiei date sunt
x
= arctg1+
πn, n
Z
, sau tinandseama ca arctg1 =
π
4, se obtine
x
=
π
4+
πn, n
Z
.b) Similar exemplului precedent se obtine
x
= arctg(
2)+
πn, n
Z
, sau tinand seama caarctangenta este o functie impara,
x
=
arctg2 +
πn, n
Z
.c) Se tine seama de (10) si se obtine
x
= arcctg(
1) +
πn, n
Z
,
sau, cum arcctg(
1) =3
π
4,
x
=3
π
4+
πn, n
Z
.d) Similar exemplului c) se obtine
x
= arcctg3 +
πn, n
Z
.
Observatie.
Ecuatiilesin
(
x
) =
a,
cos
(
x
) =
a,
tg
(
x
) =
a,
ctg
(
x
) =
a
(11)prin intermediul substitutiei
(
x
) =
t
se reduc la rezolvarea ecuatiilor (1).
Exemplul 4.
Sa se rezolve ecuatiile
a
) sin(2
x
1) = 1;
b
) cos(
x
2
+ 4) =
1;
c
) tg2
x
=
3;
d
) ctg
x
3
=
2
.
Rezolvare.
a) sin(2
x
1) = 1
sin
t
= 1;
t
= 2
x
1
,
2
x
1 =
π
2+ 2
πn, n
Z
2
x
=
π
2+ 2
πn
+ 1
, n
Z
x
=
π
4+
πn
+12
, n
Z
.
b) cos(
x
2
+4) =
1
cos
t
=
1
,t
=
x
2
+ 4
,
x
2
+4 =
π
+2
πn, n
Z
x
2
=
π
+2
πn
4,
n
Z
x
=
±
π
+ 2
πn
4
, n
= 1
,
2
,
3
,...
(se tine seama ca radicalul de ordin par existadoar din valori nenegative).c) tg2
x
=
3
2
x
= arctg
3 +
πn, n
Z
2
x
=
π
3+
πn, n
Z
x
=
π
6+
π
2
n, n
Z
.d) ctg
x
3
=
2
x
3
= arcctg(
2) +
πn, n
Z
x
=
3
 
arcctg(
2) +
πn, n
Z
.
0
Copyrightc
1999 ONG TCV Scoala Virtuala a Tanarului Matematician http://math.ournet.md
3

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