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Table Of Contents

Cell Types in the Respiratory Tract
Functional Residual Capacity
Closed Circuit Helium Dilution
Closed Circuit Nitrogen Dilution
Body Plethysmograph
Factors Affecting FRC
Residual Volume
Reductions of Vital Capacity
Alveolar Gas Tensions
Fowler's Method
Bohr's Method
Factors Affecting Anatomical Dead Space
Factors Affecting Alveolar Dead Space
Measurement of Alveolar Dead Space
Measurement of Physiological Dead Space
Characteristics of the Gas
Transmembrane Pressure Gradient
Diffusing Capacity for Carbon Monoxide
Comparison with Systemic Circuit
Factors Affecting Extra-Alveolar Vessels
Fick Principle
Indicator Dilution
Thermodilution
Radioactive Perfusion Scan
NB: in health R ~ 0.8
Physiological
1. ↑ ventilation~ 3x
A-a differences
Pathological
Effects on Arterial Blood
Physiological Adjustments to Non-Uniform V/Q Ratios
Measurement of Non-Uniformity of V/Q Ratios
Regions of Low V/Q
Measurement of Venous Admixture
Shunt vs. V/P Inequality
Haemoglobin-Oxygen Dissociation
Hydrogen Ion
Carbon Dioxide
Temperature
Dissolved
Carbamino
Haldane Effect
Bohr Effect
Cardiovascular
CNS
Miscellaneous
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Medullary Respiratory Centres
Apneustic Center
Pneumotaxic Centre
1.arterial hypoxia - decreased PaO2
Threshold for CO2
Physiological Importance
Inflation ReflexInhibito-Inspiratory Reflex (Hering-Breuer)
Paradoxical Reflex of Head
Deflation Reflex
J-Receptors
Irritant Receptors
Gamma Efferent SystemReflexes From Respiratory Muscles
Carotid & Aortic Baroreceptors
Atrial & Venous Baroreceptors
Thoracic Chemoreflexes
Reflexes From Somatic & Visceral Tissues
ARAS & Higher CNS Control
Hormones - Progesterone
Diaphragm
External Intercostal Muscles
Accessory Muscles
Abdominal Muscles
Internal Intercostal Muscles
Elastic Recoil of the Lungs
Compliance
Respiratory Pressures
Measurement
Factors Affecting Static Compliance
Dynamic Lung Compliance
Factors Affecting Dynamic Compliance
Physiological Importance of Pulmonary Surfactant
Normal Values
Airway Resistance
Aetiology of Small Airway Obstruction
Physical Factors
Nervous Factors
Chemical Factors
Coughing
Effects of Increased Airways Resistance
Pulmonary Tissue Viscous Resistance
Ventilatory Pattern
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing
Hyperventilation
Polycythemia
Other Features of Acclimatisation
Central Nervous System
Respiratory System
Absorption Atelectasis
Blood Reservoir and Filter
Immunological & Mechanical Defence
Heat Exchanger
Metabolism
Substrate Synthesis
Substrate Modification
PCO2 - Ventilation Response Curve
PO2-Ventilation Response Curve
Metabolic Acidaemia - Ventilation Response Curve
Response to Increased Resistance
Inspiratory Muscles
Expiratory and Other Muscles
Function Residual Capacity
Consequences of the Decrease in FRC
Minute Volume
Physiological Dead Space
Shunt
Summary:
Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction
The Lateral Position
Haemorrhagic Hypotension
Time Course of Changes in Arterial Blood Gases
Respiratory Centres of the Medulla
Upper Motor Neurones
Anterior Horn Cells
Lower Motor Neurones
Neuromuscular Junction
Respiratory Muscles
Decreased Compliance - Lung/Chest Wall
Integrity of Chest Wall
Improvement of PAO2
Improvement of Alveolar Ventilation
Mechanical Artificial Ventilation
Expired Air Resuscitation
Inspiration
Expiration
Time Course of Inflation & Deflation
Effects of Inflation Pressure, Resistance and Compliance
Deviations from the True Exponential Function
Patterns of Inflation Pressure
Control of Inspiration
Methods of Ventilatory Support
Respiratory Effects
Cardiovascular Effects
Renal Effects
Anatomical Aspects
Interstitial Pulmonary Oedema
Crescentic Alveolar Filling
Alveolar Flooding
Airway Flooding
Transudation Across the Vascular Endothelium
Transudation Across the Alveolar Epithelium
Pathophysiology
Increased Capillary Pressure(Haemodynamic Pulmonary Oedema)
Increased Alveolar/Capillary Permeability
Decreased Plasma Oncotic Pressure
Lymphatic Obstruction
Treatment
Clinical Measurement
Definition
Diagnostic CriteriaPetty
Clinical Course
The Acute StageInfiltration
The Sub-Acute or Chronic Stage Proliferation
Resolution
Changes in Respiratory Mechanics(Start In Phase 1)
Neutrophil Mediated Injury
Macrophages & Basophils
Platelets
Mediators
T.E. Oh
Ventilation
Pharmacotherapy
Outcome
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Respiratory Physiology

Respiratory Physiology

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Published by Anaesthesia Blog

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Published by: Anaesthesia Blog on Oct 01, 2009
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03/30/2013

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