Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The 1930 Civil Disobedience Movement in Peshawar Valley from the Pashtun Perspective

The 1930 Civil Disobedience Movement in Peshawar Valley from the Pashtun Perspective

Ratings:
(0)
|Views: 78|Likes:
Published by Qissa Khwani
Sayed Wiqar Ali Shah
South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Abstract
Like other parts of India, the civil disobedience movement was also launched in
North–West Frontier Province (Khyber–Pakhtoonkhwa), although initially with
little success.
Sayed Wiqar Ali Shah
South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Abstract
Like other parts of India, the civil disobedience movement was also launched in
North–West Frontier Province (Khyber–Pakhtoonkhwa), although initially with
little success.

More info:

Published by: Qissa Khwani on Feb 05, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/01/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 Article
The 1930
Civil
Disobedience Movement
in
Peshawar
Valley
from
the
Pashtoon Perspective
Studies in History29(1) 87–118© 2013
Jawaharlal
 Nehru
Uniersity
S!"#
$u%li&ations
'os
!n(eles) 'ondon)
 New *elhi
Sin(a+ore)
,ashinton
*-
*./
101177027453013594490 htt+sihsa(e+u%&o6
Sayed i!ar "li
Shah
South
!sia
/nstitute Uniersity o Heidel%er Heidel%er "er6any
"bstract
'i8e
other +arts o
/ndia)
the
&iil
diso%edien&e 6oe6ent was also laun&hed in
 North–,est
rontier $roin&e (:hy%er–$ahtoonhwa) althouh
initially
with little su&&ess ;he lo&al -onress souht hel+ ro6 the
:hudai :hid6at(ars)
the
6ost +o+ular
so&io<+oliti&al
orani=ation o the +roin&e> 23
!+ril
1930 saw
the
worst ind o 6assa&re in $eshawar ollowed %y other +arts o the $roin&e *urin the
&iil
diso%edien&e the
&olonial
ad6inistration tried
all
inds o
dra&o
<
nian 6ethods to su++ress the 6oe6ent %ut in
ain
;he +ur+ose o the
 +resent
resear&h is to inestiate and
analy=e
the
&iil
diso%edien&e and its i6+a&t in
the
$eshawar
?alley)
hitherto nele&ted %y the s&holars and there%y hel+ +roide a new and dee+er understandin o the whole s&enario /n a 6u&h %roader
&on
<
te@t and in a wider +ers+e&tie howeer the +resent study
will
en&o6+ass
the
ollowin(
6ain issues (a) /ndian
Ausli6s
and the
&iil
diso%edien&e
6oe6ent
laun&hed %y -onress under
Aahat6a "andhi>
(%) the rontier -onress and its ailure in 6o%ili=ation o +eo+le to su++ort
&iil
diso%edien&e> (&) the altruisti& leadershi+ o !%dul "haar :han and the :hudai :hid6atarsB tani%le su+<  +ort within the 6asses> (d) the atro&ities o the &olonial ad6inistration and
the
 +redi&a6ent o the lo&al +o+ulation> (e) adheren&e to non<iolen&e a uniCue  +heno6enon or the $ashtoons> () the inter+lay o the reliion and +oliti&s> () the &o6+le@ity o the :hudai :hid6atar–-onress relations> and (h)
the
role o &haris6ati& leadershi+ ;he +resent resear&h will %e o&usin on
these
and other
si6ilar
&ru&ial issues +reiously underalued
#eywords
reedo6 6oe6ent 1930 &iil diso%edien&e N–,$ $eshawar
?alley)
$ashtoons non<iolen&e
:issa :hani Da=aar
6assa&re/n 1930 the /ndian National -onress under the leadershi+ o Aahat6a "andhi laun&hed its &iil diso%edien&e 6oe6ent aainst the Dritish /ndian oern6ent
 
88
Sayed Wiqar Ali
Shah
de6andin E-o6+lete /nde+enden&eB Fes+ondin to the &all o "andhi lie other +arts o /ndia the North–,est rontier $roin&eBs (N–,$rena6ed as :hy%er–$ashtoonhwa) -onress6en also e6%ared on the &iil diso%edien&e  %ut in iew o their s6all nu6%er the lo&al authorities inored it ;o ie a %oost to their 6oe6ent the lo&al -onress leaders reCuested !%dul "haar :han the +ro6inent so&ial worer o the $roin&e a6ous or his altruis6 to su++ort the6 in the ne@t round o the intended &iil diso%edien&e in $eshawar to whi&h he areed ;he &olonial ad6inistration had no urther toleran&e or su&h a&tiities ;hey de&ided not to allow the s&heduled a&tiities o the lo&al +oliti&al worers whi&h 6iht &ause distur%an&e to the +ea&e and tranCuillity o the  +roin&e .n the sele&ted daythat is 23 !+ril 1930 %rutal or&e was used to dis+erse the de6on< strators ;he trai& irin on the +ea&eul 6o% in the Gissa :hani Da=aar $eshawar resulted in the illin o 6ore than two hundred +eo+le in one sinle day and &an %e raned at +ar with the 6assa&re at the Jallianwala Dah !6ritsar in !+ril 1919 /t was ollowed %y a rein o terror in the whole rontier $roin&e ;he :hudai :hid6atars and their su++orters were su%e&ted to the worst ind o hu6iliation !ter $eshawarsi6ilar atro&ities were &o66itted at ;aar Ut6an=ai and Dannu *es+ite the worst ind o re+ression  %y the oern6ent the $ashtoons re6ained non<iolent Under the &ir&u6stan&es they were &o6+elled to oin /N- a riendshi+ whi&h &ontinued till the +artition o /ndia in !uust 1957,hile lot o resear&h has %een done on the &iil diso%edien&e 6oe6ent in other +arts o /ndia the rontier $roin&e and in +arti&ular the $eshawar ?alley hae %een nele&ted hitherto or unnown reasons ?ery little resear&h has %een &ondu&ted on this +arti&ular reion ;he a%sen&e o written re&ord on this area and su%e&t has 6eant that the so&ial s&ientists historians analysts and other s&holars %elonin to arious dis&i+lines who hae s+e&ial interest in South !sia hae %een de+ried o &ru&ial inor6ation on a ery i6+ortant +hase o twentieth< &entury history ;he only aaila%le inor6ation is the oi&ial re&ord written ro6 the &olonial +ers+e&tie whi&h is not entirely relia%le !&&ordin to the oi&ial esti6ate a%out thirty nine +eo+le lost their lies on 23 !+ril a hihly &ontesta%le iure +roided %y the rontier ad6inistration and unortunately Cuoted %y 6any historians writin on the &iil diso%edien&e 6oe6ent without urther &he&in its authenti&ity ;he +resent resear&h will o&us on this nele&ted as+e&t o the &iil diso%edien&e 6oe6ent relyin u+on the +ri6ary sour&es in&ludin the +ersonal interiews &ondu&ted %y the author in arious +arts o $ashtoonhwa and un+u%lished 6e6oirs and auto%iora+hies ,hile details will %e +roided o the &iil diso%edien&e 6oe6ent in the rontier +roin&e in eneral s+e&ial attention will %e ien to the $eshawar ?alley ,hy 1930 is an i6+ortant year in $ashtoon history and how it is rele&ted in the lo&al +oetry will %e ealuated ;he +resent resear&h will also analy=e the $ashtoon +ers+e&tie o the whole &iil diso%edien&e 6oe6ent *es+ite ad6onition ro6 arious &ir&les what 6otiated the6 to  oin the 6oe6entI ,hat ind o 6o%ili=ation te&hniCues were ado+ted %y the leaders to attra&t the &o66on 6an to oin in and with what resultsI ,hat
Studies
in
 History,
29, 1
(2013):
87118
 
!he 1930
"i#il
 $iso%edience
 &o#e'ent
89was their thininI How were they treated %y the rontier authoritiesI ,hat ind o 6ethods o torture were used aainst the6 so that rather than a%andonin the strule they showed +ertina&ity and instead lo&ed into the :hudai :hid6atar 6oe6entI ;hese and si6ilar Cuestions will &o6e under dis&ussion in the +resent resear&h arti&le How the $ashtoons inter+reted the whole s&enario why did they not retaliate were &o6+la&ent in dii&ult situations and des+ite suerin the worst ind o hu6iliation were a%le to aene re+eated insults are so6e o the Cuestions / a6 &on&erned with ;he +resent arti&le will also inestiate the $ashtoonsB ado+tion o non<iolen&e as a &reed and their &o66it6ent to it whi&h earned the6 a ood re+utation at an all</ndia leel ,hether !%dul "haar :han e6ulated the non<iolen&e +rea&hed %y "andhi in other +arts o /ndia or deelo+ed his own +arti&ular ariety will also &o6e under dis&ussion ,hy the $ashtoons were in&lined to oin the -onress rather than the Ausli6 'eaue their &o<reliionists in the reedo6 strule will %e thorouhly inestiated ,hat was the role o the +ro<Dritish landed aristo&ra&y title holders and other loyalists durin the whole i6%rolio and what were its re+er&ussionsI ,hat was the i6+a&t o the &iil diso%edien&e 6oe6ent on the reion and how it inluen&ed the uture &ourse o South !sian +oliti&s will also  %e analy=ed/n its histori& orty<ourth session held in 'ahore in *e&e6%er 1929 the /N- de6anded &o6+lete inde+enden&eE
Sara
B instead o E*o6inion StatusB or /ndia Jawaharlal Nehru the -onress $resident 6ade it a%solutely &lear that they wanted Eullest reedo6 o /ndiaB and Ewill not a&nowlede the riht o the Dritish $arlia6ent to di&tate to us in any wayB
1
/t e6+owered "andhi to +lan and de&ide on the nature and ti6ins o the &iil diso%edien&e aainst the #6+ire to a&hiee the desired oals
2
"andhi was ully &onin&ed o the +ea&eul and non< iolent 6ass 6oe6ent
3
/n the 'ahore -onress he was a%solutely &onin&ed o the attain6ent o inde+enden&e %y non<iolent 6eans He e@+ressed his iews to the +arti&i+ants in the 6ost darin 6anner and stated that E'et 6e howeer tell you 6y &oni&tion that i the nation &arried out the non<iolent +rora66e loyally there need not %e any dou%t a%out the attain6ent o our oalKB
5
He ela%orated urther and said that E/ ad6it and  %eliee that &ool &ourae is 6ihtier than the sword -ool &ourae &an ery well i6+le6ent &iil diso%edien&e / one thins that &o6+lete inde+enden&e &annot  %e a&hieed throuh +ea&eul 6eans it i6+lies that he has no aith in &ool &ourae ;he 6o6ent we a&Cuire &ool &ourae
1
Jawaharlal NehruBs $residential !ddress 29 *e&e6%er 1929 'ahore
"on*ress +residential  Addresses ro' the Sil#er to the -olden .u%ilee
(Aadras " ! Natesan L -o 1935) 893
2
Judith A Drown
-andhi +risoner o/ Hoe
(New Haens Male Uniersity $ress 1989) 235
3
E/n a +la&e lie /ndiaB re6ared "andhi Ewhere the 6ihtiest oranisation is +leded to non<O iolen&e i you really %eliee in your own &reed that is to say i you %eliee in yourseles i you  %eliee in your nation then it is &iil diso%edien&e that is wanted>B S+ee&h at the 55th Session o -onress 'ahore 31 *e&e6%er 1929
!he "ollected Wors o/ &ahat'a -andhi 44 (5cto%er 1929 e%ruary 1930)
 (!h6eda%ad Naaian ;rust 1970) 3
5
'ahore 29 *e&e6%er 1929
"ollected Wors o/ &ahat'a -andhi
 44 
 332
Studies
in
 History,
29, 1
(2013):
87118

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->