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Interpreting Principal Stresses

# Interpreting Principal Stresses

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05/27/2013

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Interpreting Principal Stresses
Principal Stresses:
This document talks about the principal stresses in a gross sense than its theoreticalexplanations. And, here I go...Most of the times we do wonder what use are these principal stresses of. But, to see inreal, these vectors are calculated to have a measure of the magnitude of kind of stress ateach of the locations in the component (By magnitude, I mean Tensile or Compressive)under study.The principal stresses are calculated at each point in the component through the cubicequation below\
=> (
σ
x
–
σ
0
) * [(
σ
y
–
σ
0
) * (
σ
z
–
σ
0
) –
σ
yz
*
σ
yz
] –
σ
xy
* [
σ
xy
* (
σ
z
–
σ
0
) –
σ
yz
*
σ
xz
] +
σ
xz
* [
σ
xy
*
σ
yz
–
σ
xz
* (
σ
y
–
σ
0
)] = 0=> (
σ
x
–
σ
0
) * [(
σ
y
σ
z
–
σ
y
σ
0
–
σ
0
σ
z
+
σ
02
–
σ
yz2
] –
σ
xy
* [
σ
xy
σ
z
–
σ
xy
σ
0
–
σ
yz
σ
xz
] +
σ
xz
* [
σ
xy
σ
yz
–
σ
xz
σ
y
+
σ
xz
σ
0
)] = 0
=> σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
–
σ
0
σ
x
σ
y
–
σ
0
σ
x
σ
z
+
σ
02
σ
x
–
σ
x
σ
yz2
–
σ
0
σ
y
σ
z
+
σ
02
σ
y
+
σ
02
σ
z
–
σ
03
+
σ
0
σ
yz2
–
σ
xy
2
σ
z
+
σ
0
σ
xy
2
+
σ
xy
σ
yz
σ
xz
+
σ
xy
σ
yz
σ
xz
–
σ
xz2
σ
y
+
σ
0
σ
xz2
= 0
=> −σ
03
+
σ
02
(
σ
y
+ σ
z
–
σ
x
) –
σ
0
(
σ
x
σ
y
+
σ
x
σ
z
+
σ
y
σ
z
–
σ
yz2
+
σ
xz2
+
σ
xy
2
) +
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
–
σ
x
σ
yz2
–
σ
xy
2
σ
z
–

σ
xz2
σ
y
+ 2*
σ
xy
σ
yz
σ
xz
= 0

By expanding the determinant above, we get an equation of the cubic order as above. Asknown, we get three roots from this equation as solution. The roots are then arranged inan order so as to get the most positive, most negative and the last one left and assigned as
σ
1
,
σ
3
and
σ
2
(First, Third and Second Principal Stresses) respectively. The second principal stress is not of much significance.So, in our analysis of the components, these principal stresses would help us determinewhere the maximum tensile and compressive stresses are induced and how these tensileand compressive stresses are distributed in the component.Let’s try to understand the same with some examples...20 October 20051

Interpreting Principal Stresses
Example 1:
A Cylinder of diameter of 20 mm and length 100 mm is subjected to a pressure of 100MPa Pressure on one side with the other side constrained to move in the direction of  pressure as shown in the picture below.Young’s Modulus, E = 162900 MPaPoissons Ratio,
ν
= 0.2820 October 20052All nodes on one side (as said in the abovestatement), are constrained to move in thedirection of pressure and one node at thecenter is arrested in other directions too. Andtwo nodes at the ends marked by red circleare constrained to move in lateral directionJust to achieve convergence with ease and tosuppress rigid body motion.(It should be noted that as long as theimposed extra constraints do not producestresses of significant magnitude, they can beconsidered non-affecting.)Two cases of pressure application are studiedhere.Positive pressure of 100 MPa simulating a pressing of the model against the constraints. Negative pressure of 100 MPa simulating a pulling of the model against the constraints.

Interpreting Principal Stresses
Results of Case 1
Displacement Plot in Direction of pressure:Displacement Plot in Cylinder Radial Direction:
20 October 20053

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