view of life. The book ends with the description of two childlike happy old women: They haveforgotten worldly care, shed off all responsibilities, obligations, hates, and grievances, and havereturned to nature, the happy innocence of childhood. To live as a child or even as an infant is oneof the goals of Taoist religion. Elaine finally realizes that such a happy innocence is what she has been lacking in her life. But sadly enough, Elaine decides that such a happy innocence issomething she will never be able to obtain but will miss dearly for the rest of her life. Thus, themeaning of Elaine Risley’s life is nothing but absolute emptiness.In the 1970s in Britain, punk movement started among certain young people who wereopposed to the values of money-based society and mark themselves by loud music. Those youthswere not aware of their own system of values. Therefore they did not form any parties or makeany speechs to express themselves. However, their attitude toward life deeply influenced everyone of us. Some scholars think they will eventually prevail in the world.Paralleling to the movement of punks, a group of jobless adults is called tramps. Anarticle writes,
They ( tramps ) have nothing to sell and require nothing from others. In seeking independence, they do not sacrifice their human dignity. His few material possessionsmake it possible for him to move from place to place with ease. By having to sleep in theopen, he gets far closer to the world of nature than most of us ever do.
In ancient times, life was very vulnerable and frail in a hostile environment. People built pyramids and made heroes to look up to, and they also worshiped gods for protection. In moderncommercialized society, life has become safe, stable, and more predicable. Religion provides aretreat, an escape from the money-oriented society. But to many people, religion has lost itsmysterious, awesome nature. A major part of our population rarely goes to church or to other religious facilities to worship gods. Modern nihilism has seized this gap, taking control of millions of our minds. One phenomenon is so called massive junk culture: rock music, soapopera, comic shows, and all bizarre horror mystery novels and so on. They have created a fantasy