Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortenedlife expectancy. At severely high pressures, defined asmean arterial pressures50% or more above average, a person can expect to live no more than afew years unless appropriately treated.
Beginning at asystolic pressure (which is peak pressure inthe arteries, which occurs near the end of thecardiac cyclewhen theventriclesare contracting)of 115mmHganddiastolicpressure (which is minimum pressure in the arteries, which occursnear the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood) of 75 mmHg(commonly written as 115/75 mmHg),cardiovascular disease(CVD) risk doubles for eachincrement of 20/10 mmHg.
Signs and symptoms associated with pre- eclampsiaandeclampsia, can be proteinuria,edema,and hallmark of eclampsia which isconvulsions, Other cerebral signs may precede theconvulsion such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and blindness.CausesEssential hypertensionHypertension is one of the most common complex disorders. The etiology of hypertensiondiffers widely amongst individuals within a large population.Essential hypertension is the formof hypertension that by definition, has no identifiable cause. It is the more common type andaffects 90-95% of hypertensive patients,
and even though there are no direct causes, there aremany risk factors such assedentary lifestyle,
and to some inheritedgenetic mutations. Family historyincreases the risk of developing hypertension.Reninelevation is another risk factor, Renin is anenzymesecreted by the juxtaglomerular apparatusof the kidney and linked withaldosteronein anegative feedback loop. Alsosympatheticoveractivity is implicated.Insulin resistancewhich is acomponent of syndrome X,or themetabolic syndromeis also thought to cause hypertension.Recentlylow birth weighthas been questioned as a risk factor for adult essential hypertension.Secondary hypertensionOn the other hand, secondary hypertension by definition results from an identifiable cause. Thistype is important to recognize since it’s treated differently than essential type by treating theunderlying cause.Many secondary causes can cause hypertension; some are common and well recognizedsecondary causes such asCushing's syndrome, which is a condition where bothadrenal glandscan overproduce the hormonecortisol. Hypertension results from the interplay of several pathophysiological mechanisms regulating plasma volume, peripheralvascular resistanceandcardiac output,all of which may be increased. More than 80% of patients with Cushing'ssyndrome have hypertension. Another important cause is the congenital abnormalitycoarctationof the aorta.
) and steroids can cause hypertension.High blood pressure that is associated with the suddenwithdrawalof variousantihypertensivemedications is calledRebound Hypertension. The increases in blood pressure may result in blood pressures greater than when the medication was initiated. Depending on the severity of theincrease in blood pressure, rebound hypertension may result in ahypertensive emergency.Rebound hypertension is avoided by gradually reducing the dose (also known as "dosetapering"), thereby giving the body enough time to adjust to reduction in dose. Medicationscommonly associated with rebound hypertension include centrally-acting antihypertensiveagents, such asclonidine