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Sikhism,[1] Founded on the Teachings of Guru Nanak Dev And

Sikhism,[1] Founded on the Teachings of Guru Nanak Dev And

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Sikhism
,
founded on the teachings of  Guru Nanak Devand ten successive Sikh Gurus(the last one being the sacred textGuru Granth Sahib) in fifteenth century Punjab, is thefifth- largestorganized religionin the world.
This system of religiousphilosophyand expression hasbeen traditionally known as theGurmat(literally
the counsel of the gurus
) or the SikhDharma.
Sikhism
originated from the word
Sikh
, which in turn comes fromtheSanskritroot
 meaning "disciple" or "learner", or 
śikṣa
meaning "instruction".
The principal belief of Sikhism is faith in
—represented using the sacred symbol of  
, theUniversalGod. Sikhism advocates the pursuit of salvation through disciplined,personal meditation on the name and message of God. A key distinctive feature of Sikhism is anon-anthropomorphicconcept of God, to the extent that one can interpret God as theUniverseitself. The followers of Sikhism are ordained to follow the teachings of the tenSikh gurus, or enlightened leaders, as well as the holy scripture entitled the
,which,along with the writings of six of the ten Sikh Gurus, includes selected works of many devoteesfrom diverse socio-economic and religious backgrounds. The text was decreed byGuru GobindSingh, the tenth guru, as the final guru of theKhalsa Panth.Sikhism's traditions and teachings are distinctively associated with the history, society and culture of thePunjab. Adherents of Sikhism are known asSikhs (
students
or 
disciples
) and number over 23 million across the world.Most Sikhs live inPunjab in India and, until India'spartition,millions of Sikhs lived in what is nowPakistani Punjab.
 
o
o
o
o
o
o
Philosophy and teachings
TheHarimandir Sahib,known popularly as theGolden Temple, is a sacred shrine for Sikhs.
The origins of Sikhism lie in the teachings of Guru Nanak and his successors. The essence of Sikh teaching is summed up byNanakin these words: "Realisation of Truth is higher than allelse. Higher still is truthful living".
 Sikhism believes in equality of all humans and rejectsdiscrimination on the basis of caste, creed, and gender. Sikhism also does not attach anyimportance to asceticismas a means to attain salvation, but stresses on the need of leading life as a householder.Sikhism is amonotheistic religion.
In Sikhism, God—termed 
niraṅ
kār 
,
akāl 
, and
alakh
. The beginning of the first composition of Sikh scriptureis the figure "1"—signifying the universality of God. It states that God is omnipresent and infinite, and is signified by the term
.
Sikhs believe that before creation, all that existed was
 
God and Its 
 (will or order).
When God willed, the entire cosmos was created. Fromthese beginnings, God nurtured "enticement and attachment" to 
, or the human perceptionof reality.
While a full understanding of God is beyond human beings,
 Nanakdescribed God as not whollyunknowable. God is omnipresent (
) in all creation and visible everywhere to thespiritually awakened. Nanak stressed that God must be seen from "the inward eye", or the"heart", of a human being: devotees mustmeditate to progress towards enlightenment. Guru Nanak Dev emphasized the revelation through meditation, as its rigorous application permits theexistence of communication between God and human beings.
God has no gender in Sikhism,(though translations may incorrectly present a male God); indeed Sikhism teaches that God is"Nirankar" [Niran meaning "without" and kar meaning "form", hence "without form"]. In addition,Nanak wrote that there are many worlds on which God has created life.
Pursuing salvation and khalsa
A Sikh man at the Harimandir Sahib
Nanak's teachings are founded not on a final destination of  heaven or hell,but on a spiritual union with God which results in salvation.
 The chief obstacles to the attainment of salvation are socialconflicts and an attachment to worldly pursuits, which commit men and women to an endlesscycle of birth—a concept known as
.
—defined as illusion or "unreality"—is one of the core deviations from the pursuit of Godand salvation: people are distracted from devotion by worldly attractions which give only illusivesatisfaction. However, Nanak emphasised māyā as not a reference to the unreality of the world,but of its values. In Sikhism, the influences of ego, anger ,greed, attachment,and lust—known as the
Five Evils
—are believed to be particularly pernicious. The fate of people vulnerable to theFive Evils is separation from God, and the situation may be remedied only after intensive andrelentless devotion.
Nanak described God's revelation—the path to salvation—with terms such as
nām
(thedivine
Name
) and
 (the divine Word) to emphasise the totality of the revelation. Nanakdesignated the word
guru 
(meaning
teacher 
) as the voice of God and the source and guide for 

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