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Ultrasonic Examination Austenitic and Dissimilar Welds

Ultrasonic Examination Austenitic and Dissimilar Welds

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Published by Mohieddin Hadidi
Commission V Handbook on the Ultrasonic Examination of Austenitic and Dissimilar Welds-content.
Commission V Handbook on the Ultrasonic Examination of Austenitic and Dissimilar Welds-content.

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Published by: Mohieddin Hadidi on Feb 08, 2014
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07/25/2014

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Commission V Handbook on the Ultrasonic Examinationof  Austenitic and Dissimilar Welds IIW Handbook 
 
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION 13
1.1 Scope and objectives of handbook 131.2 Structural characteristics of austenitic weld materials 131.3 Inspection of austenitic welds 14
2. PARENT MATERIAL AND WELD STRUCTURE 15
2.1 Parent Material Properties 152.1.1 Wrought Materials 152.1.2 Cast Materials 162.2 Welding Process 162.2.1 Grain Angle Distribution 172.2.2 Welding Types 182.2.3 Welding Position 212.2.4 Weld Repairs 232.2.5 Dissimilar Metal Welds 242.3 Welds in Duplex Stainless Steels 25
3. DEFECTS 26
3.1 Manufacturing defects 263.2 Service Induced Defects and Degradation 283.2.1 Mechanical fatigue cracks (Figure 13) 303.2.2 Thermal Fatigue Cracks (Figure 14, Figure 15) 303.2.3 Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) (Figure 16) 303.2.4 Transgranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (TGSCC) (Figure 17) 303.2.5 Intergranular Attack (IGA) 303.2.6 Corrosion 303.2.7 Erosion 30
4. PROPAGATION OF ULTRASOUND THROUGH AUSTENITIC WELDS 31
4.1 Introductory Remarks 314.2 Physics of Wave Propagation in Austenitic Weld Material 324.2.1 Wave Mode and Polarization 32
 
2
4.2.2 Velocity of Ultrasonic Waves in Austenitic Materials 334.2.3 Beam Deviation Effects and Focusing/Defocusing Effects. 374.2.4 Snells Law and Slowness Surface 384.2.5 Simulation 384.2.6 Grain Boundary Scattering 39
5. FACTORS AFFECTING INSPECTION CAPABILITY 40
5.1 Introduction 405.2 Access 405.3 Parent Material 405.4 Welding 415.4.1 Weld Volume 415.4.2 Welding Position 415.4.3 Weld Interfaces 425.4.4 Weld Repairs 445.4.5 Dissimilar Metal Welds 44
6. ULTRASONIC TECHNIQUES 45
6.1 Overview of techniques for detection 456.2 Equipment 496.3 Probes 496.3.1 Shear Wave Probes 496.3.2 Compression Wave Probes 496.3.2.1 Single crystal compression probes 516.3.2.2 Twin crystal compression probes 516.3.3 Special Probes 536.3.3.1 Creeping wave probes 536.3.3.2 Mode conversion probes (LLT) 546.3.3.3 Focused probes 566.3.3.4 Phased array probes 576.3.3.5 EMAT probes 586.3.3.6 TOFD Probes 586.3.4 Couplant 58

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