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Chanakya Niti Shastra

Chanakya Niti Shastra

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Published by H Janardan Prabhu
An old historical story on political ethics
An old historical story on political ethics

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Published by: H Janardan Prabhu on Feb 08, 2014
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02/08/2014

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Chanakya's EducationRishi Canak named his son as "Chanakya". Being a teacher himself, he knew the importance of education. Taxila was one of the world centers for education. t a !ery early age little Chanakya started studying edas. The edas# considered to $e the toughest scriptures to study were completely studied and memori%ed $y Chanakya in his infancy. &e was attracted to studies in politics. n politics Chanakya(s acumen and shrewdness was !isi$le right from childhood. &e was a student of politics right from child hood. )nown as a masterful political strategist, &e knew how to put his own people in the opposite camp and spy the enemy without his knowledge $efore destroying him fore!er. Chanakya was an ace in turning ta$les in his fa!or irrespecti!e of the circumstances. &e ne!er $udged to pressure tactics $y the ruthless politicians. n this way after studying religion and politics, he turned his attention to economics, which remained his lifelong friend. "*itishastra", a treatise on the ideal way of life shows his in depth study of the ndian way of life
Life as a student
Takshashila, +later corrupted as Taxila,one of the topmost centers of education at that time in ndia $ecame Chanakya(s $reeding ground of ac-uiring knowledge in the practical and theoretical aspect. The teachers were highly knowledgea$le who used to teach sons of kings. t is said that a certain teacher had / students and all of them were princes0 The uni!ersity at Taxila was well !ersed in teaching the su$1ects using the $est of practical knowledge ac-uired $y the teachers. The age of entering the uni!ersity was sixteen. The $ranches of studies most sought after in around ndia ranged from law, medicine, warfare and other indigenous forms of learning. The four edas, archery, hunting, elephant2lore and 3 arts were taught at the uni!ersity of Taxila. 4o prominent was the place where Chanakya recei!ed his education that it goes to show the making of the genius. The !ery re-uirements of admission filtered out the outlawed and people with lesser credentials. fter ac-uiring !ast knowledge in !arious $ranches of study he wanted e!ery$ody to get $enefited. &e $elie!ed in the $roadcasting of knowledge and not in the storage of it. 4o famous was Chanakya in the !icinity of the uni!ersity that he had many nicknames. &e was called !ariously $y different people, namely 5 ishnugupta, )autilya and Chanakya. The whole nation was $ewildered $y the cle!erness and wit of this seemingly small $oy who went on to single handedly unify the country with the sheer power of his character. &e li!ed his life working to his capacity in pursuit of his !ision of a happy strong and prosperous ndia.
Taxila University
 t a time when the 6ark ges were looming large, the existence of a uni!ersity of Taxila(s grandeur really makes ndia stand apart way ahead of the European countries who struggled with ignorance and total information
 
$lackout. 7or the ndian su$continent Taxila stood as a light house of higher knowledge and pride of ndia. n the present day world, Taxila is situated in 8akistan at a place called Rawalpindi. The uni!ersity accommodated more than /,/// students at a time. The uni!ersity offered courses spanning a period of more than eight years. The students were admitted after graduating from their own countries. spiring students opted for electi!e su$1ects going for in depth studies in speciali%ed $ranches of learning. fter graduating from the uni!ersity, the students are recogni%ed as the $est scholars in the su$continent. t $ecame a cultural heritage as time passed. Taxila was the  1unction where people of different origins mingled with each other and exchanged knowledge of their countries. The uni!ersity was famous as "Taxila" uni!ersity, named after the city where it was situated. The king and rich people of the region used to donate la!ishly for the de!elopment of the uni!ersity. n the religious scriptures also, Taxila is mentioned as the place where the king of snakes, asuki selected Taxila for the dissemination of knowledge on earth.&ere it would $e essential to mention $riefly the range of su$1ects taught in the uni!ersity of Taxila. + 4cience, +9 8hilosophy, +: yur!eda, +; <rammar of !arious languages, += >athematics, +? Economics, +@  strology, +3 <eography, +A stronomy, +/ 4urgical science, +  gricultural sciences, +9 rchery and ncient and >odern 4ciences.The uni!ersity also used to conduct researches on !arious su$1ects.
Commotion in Taxila
<andhar Repu$lic was not a$le to come out of the shock of the comprehensi!e defeat at the hands of the pro!ince of 8orus, when a new contingency starred in the eyes of Taxila. Thousands of refugees poured in Taxila as a result of the widespread attacks of the armies of lexander. These people were not producti!e for the state as they didn(t come to Taxila to ac-uire knowledge or in search of 1o$s. They didn(t ha!e money or any kind of assets to $uy themsel!es the essential commodities. To resol!e the pro$lem, a meeting was con!ened $y the rulers of the neigh$oring countries and the king of Taxila. The knowledgea$le people who gathered to gi!e their opinions on the pro$lem faced $y Taxila, ga!e out their suggestions. t the end of the meeting, it was decided that the refugees must $e gi!en co!er under humanitarian grounds. 4o, in line with the decision taken, a stretch of land outside Taxila was allotted for the refugees. They were allowed to enter Taxila after pro!ing their identity with the sentry. n this way what appeared to $e a calamity was appeased without much ado. The incident was 1ust a precursor to a series of e!ents which re!er$erated across ndia as a result of the attacks of lexander.
Move towards Patliputra
Though Chanakya was 1ust a professor in the Taxila ni!ersity which seemed to $e far away from the happenings in the country, he actually was a$le to influence the go!ernments in a $ig way. &is students looked at him as an
 
ideal teacher who inspired and exemplified great knowledge. &is students respected him and were ready to fight at any moment at his orders. Two of his students who ha!e $een mentioned at !arious instances were Bhadra$hatt and 8urushdutt. n the e!ents that unfolded in the life of Chanakya, these two played a pi!otal role in the achie!ement of his goals. t is rumored that they acted as spies for Chanakya, collecting information a$out his enemies.4omehow, Chanakya came to know that there was a chance of foreign in!asion. Europe(s great warrior 4alukes was readying his armies to attack the weakened repu$lics of ndia. There were gra!e designs threatening the unity and integrity of the nation. n such a scenario the ruler of 8atliputra, >ahanand was s-uee%ing the common man of his wealth with an o$1ect of enriching his own exche-uer. Chanakya was aware of the internal and external threats of the country. n the one hand, the rulers of the neigh$oring countries were looking for the slightest of chance to annex the prosperous regions of the country and on the other hand, foreign in!aders started mo!ing towards the country with an expectation of easily smothering the country. These thoughts ga!e Chanakya sleepless nights. &e en!isioned his country clutched in the chains of sla!ery and defeated $ecause of internal s-ua$$les and differences. 4o he decided on the historical day, thus saying, "*ow the time has come to lea!e the uni!ersity. The scrupulous rulers of the country must $e uprooted and there is a need to strengthen the country politically and economically. >y first and foremost duty is to sa!e the country of the foreign in!aders and sal!age this dangerous proposition."Dith these thoughts in mind, he left Taxila ni!ersity for 8atliputra which pa!ed the way for watershed changes in the politics of ndia and 8atliputra.
Patliputra – The city of fortunes
8atliputra, +presently known as 8atna has $een historically a !ery important city politically and strategically. ike 6elhi, 8atliputra has seen the ups and downs of de!elopment and great re!ersals. The well known Chinese tra!eler 7ahian, who !isited the city in :AA BC descri$ed it as prosperous city endowed with rich natural resources. t the same time, another Chinese tra!eler &uen sang descri$ed it as a city of ru$$les and ruins.4hishunag!anshi esta$lished the city on the southern $ank of the <anges. t was addressed with different names at different times. To. illustrate a few names, 8ushpapur, 8ushpanagar, 8atliputra and 8atna.The city was industrious in producing essential commodities and luxurious goods for the rich. Dhen Chanakya entered the city, it was known for respecting knowledgea$le people and scholars. The intellectuals from across the country were warmly in!ited for the intercourse of new ideas and de!elopment of the state. t was !irtually the city of fortunes as it recogni%ed the true talent and rewarded richly for the work done $y an indi!idual. *o wonder Chanakya decided to start his glorious campaign from 8atliputra.

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