Glycosides may be defined as the organic compounds from plants or animal sources,which on enzymatic or acid hydrolysis give one or more sugar moieties along with non-sugar moiety. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store important chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides; if these chemicals areneeded, the glycosides are brought in contact with water and anenzyme, and the sugar part is broken off, making the chemical available for use. Many such plant glycosides areused asmedications. In animals (including humans), poisons are often bound to sugar molecules in order to remove them from the body.Formally, a glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through itscarbonatom to another group via anO-glycosidic bondor anS-glycosidic bond;
glycosides involving the latter are also called
. The sugar group is thenknown as the
and the non-sugar group as the
ClassificationClassification based on linkages
Based on the linkage of sugar moiety to aglycone part1.O-Glycoside:-Here the sugar is combined with alcoholic or phenolic hydroxylfunction of aglycone.eg:-digitalis.2.N-glycosides:-Here nitrogen of amino group is condensed with a sugar ,eg- Nucleoside3.S-glycoside:-Here sugar is combined with sulphur of aglycone,eg- isothiocyanateglycosides.4.C-glycosides:-By condensation of a sugar with a cabon atom, eg-Cascaroside,aloin.Glycosides can be classified by the glycone, by the type of glycosidic bond, and by theaglycone.
If the glycone group of a glycoside isglucose, then the molecule is aglucoside;if it is
fructose, then the molecule is afructoside; if it isglucuronic acid, then the molecule is a
glucuronide; etc. In the body, toxic substances are often bonded to glucuronic acid toincrease their water solubility; the resulting glucuronides are then excreted.
By type of glycosidic bond