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Assignment on Virus

Assignment on Virus

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Published by Rinta Moon
Mechanism of action of ADENOVIRUS
Mechanism of action of HERPES VIRUS
Mechanism of action of PAPOVAVIRUS
Mechanism of action of POXVIRUS
Mechanism of action of PICORNAVIRUS
Mechanism of action of REOVIRUS
Mechanism of action of TOGAVIRUS
Mechanism of action of CALICIVIRUS
Mechanism of action of ASTROVIRUS
Mechanism of action of ORTHOMYXOVIRUS
Mechanism of action of PARAMYXOVIRUS
Mechanism of action of RETROVIRUS
Mechanism of action of HEPADNAVIRUS
Mechanism of action of ADENOVIRUS
Mechanism of action of HERPES VIRUS
Mechanism of action of PAPOVAVIRUS
Mechanism of action of POXVIRUS
Mechanism of action of PICORNAVIRUS
Mechanism of action of REOVIRUS
Mechanism of action of TOGAVIRUS
Mechanism of action of CALICIVIRUS
Mechanism of action of ASTROVIRUS
Mechanism of action of ORTHOMYXOVIRUS
Mechanism of action of PARAMYXOVIRUS
Mechanism of action of RETROVIRUS
Mechanism of action of HEPADNAVIRUS

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Published by: Rinta Moon on Feb 08, 2014
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ASSIGNMENT ON
DNA and RNA Viruses
Course name: Medicinal Chemistry III Course code: PHRM 412 Section 1 Semester: Fall 2012 SUBMITTED TO: Md. Anisur Rahman Lecturer Department of Pharmacy SUBMITTED BY: Samiya Khondaker Rinta (ID: 2010-3-70-048) East West University Submission date: 10
th
 November, 2013
 
INTRODUCTION
Virus is a Latin word meaning poison or toxin. Viruses are the smallest infectious microorganisms and can infect animals and plants and even bacteria (Crosta, 2009). Their diameter is approximately 20-300 nm and in their genome they contain only one kind of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). The genetic material is enclosed inside a capsid (protein coat). In some viruses the capsid in turn is surrounded by a lipid bilayer called the envelope (Mandal, 2013). A virus does not contain organelles or ribosomes and depends solely on a host cell for its replication. It uses the host cellular energy, biochemicals and processes for multiplication and survival (Hilleman, 2004). Based on whether a virus contains one or more DNA or RNA molecule(s), viruses are classified as DNA virus or RNA virus. They are divided in the following arbitrary groups: 1)
 
dsDNA such as adenoviruses, herpesviruses; poxviruses, etc. 2)
 
(+)ssDNA such as parvoviruses 3)
 
dsRNA such as reoviruses, birnaviruses 4)
 
(+)ssRNA such as picornaviruses, togaviruses, etc. 5)
 
(-)ssRNA such as orthomyxoviruses, rhabdoviruses, etc. 6)
 
(+)ssRNA with DNA intermediate in life-cycle such as retroviruses. 7)
 
dsDNA with RNA intermediate such as hepadnaviruses.( Koonin
et al.
, 2006) During replication all viruses need to penetrate the host cell then they carry out the replication process and then the new viruses leave the host cell to infect other healthy host cells of the body. However the detailed process for each of these three stages varies among the viruses and depends upon the nature of their genome (Boevink and Oparka, 2005).
Figure 1
: Schematic diagram showing replication in simplified form for each class of virus (Microbiology Bytes, 2004).
 
ADENOVIRUS
Adenoviruses have a linear, non-segmented dsDNA genome inside an icoshedral structure and are nonenveloped. These viruses infect the mucoepithelial cells of the GI, GU and respiratory tracts. They enter via epithelium, replicate and spread to lymphoid tissues (Doerfler, 1996).
Figure 2:
 Adenovirus structure showing capsid proteins, core proteins and minor proteins (Microbiology Bytes, 2010). Figure 3: Showing attachment, penetration and uncoating of virion and insertion of viral genome in host nucleus (Leppard, 1997) As show in the above figure the viral fiber binds to a host cell surface receptor (CAR). Then an interaction between a penton base viral protein with a host cell integrin molecule takes place. The

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