Laws of thermodynamics
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances. 1.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics:
If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law helps define the notion of temperature. That is, if system A and system B are individually in thermal equilibrium with system C, then system A is in thermal equilibrium with system B. 2.
First Law of Thermodynamics:
Heat and work are forms of energy transfer. Energy is invariably conserved but the internal energy of a closed system changes as heat and work are transferred in or out of it. The first law of thermodynamics may be stated thus: Increase in internal energy of a body,
= heat supplied to the body,
- work done by the body,
The Second Law of Thermodynamics:
This law states that in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state. This is also commonly referred to as entropy. 4.
Third law of thermodynamics:
The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches zero. The entropy of a system at absolute zero is typically zero, and in all cases is determined only by the number of different ground states it has. Specifically, the entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero temperature is zero.
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves.
The law of conservation of energy:
This states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. However, energy can change forms, and energy can flow from one place to another. The total energy of an isolated system remains the same.
The law of conservation of momentum:
This states that the total linear momentum in any isolated system is constant, provided that no external force is applied and regardless of other possible changes within the system.
The law of conservation of angular momentum:
It states that when no external torque acts on an object or a closed system of objects, no change of angular momentum can occur. Hence, the angular momentum before an event involving only internal torques or no torques is equal to the angular momentum after the event.
The law of conservation of charge:
Charge conservation is the principle that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. The net quantity of electric charge, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge in the universe, is always conserved.
The law of conservation of electric charge:
implies that “a
t any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node
”, or “t
he algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero
. Mathematically, we can state the law as a continuity equation: