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Laws of Physics

# Laws of Physics

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Newton's laws of motion
Newton's law of universal gravitation
Rotational Form of Newton's Laws
Law of Falling Bodies
Kepler's three Laws of Planetary Motion
Hooke's Law
Stokes’ law
Laws of thermodynamics
Conservation laws
Stefan's law
Wien's Displacement Law
Gas laws
Kirchhoff's circuit laws
Ohm's Law
Coulomb's law
Lenz's law
The Laws of Reflection
Principle of Superposition
The Inverse Square Law of Light
Newton's laws of motion
Newton's law of universal gravitation
Rotational Form of Newton's Laws
Law of Falling Bodies
Kepler's three Laws of Planetary Motion
Hooke's Law
Stokes’ law
Laws of thermodynamics
Conservation laws
Stefan's law
Wien's Displacement Law
Gas laws
Kirchhoff's circuit laws
Ohm's Law
Coulomb's law
Lenz's law
The Laws of Reflection
Principle of Superposition
The Inverse Square Law of Light

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02/08/2014

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Newton's laws of motion
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces.
1.

First law:
If an object experiences no net force, then its velocity is constant, that is, the object is either at rest (if its velocity is zero), or it moves in a straight line with constant speed (if its velocity is not zero). This law is often called "the law of inertia".
2.

Second law:
The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force
F
acting on the body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass
m
of the body, i.e.,
F = ma
.
3.

Third law:
When a first body exerts a force
F
1
on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force
F
2

= −F
1
on the first body. This means that
F
1
and
F
2
are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
Newton's law of universal gravitation
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Mathematically, the law can  be stated as, where:
F
is the force between the masses,
G
is the gravitational constant,
m
1
is the first mass,
m
2
is the second mass, and
is the distance between the centers of the masses.
Rotational Form of Newton's Laws
Newton Rotational I:
If the net torque acting on a rigid object is zero, it will rotate with a constant angular velocity.
Newton Rotational II:
This is not as general a relationship as the linear one because the moment of inertia,
I
, is not strictly a scalar quantity. The rotational equation is limited to rotation about a single principal axis, which in simple cases is an axis of symmetry.
τ = I α
, where
τ
is the torque,
I
is the inertia and
α
is the rotational acceleration. (A result of Newton's 2nd law of linear motion.)

2
Newton Rotational III:
For every applied torque, there is an equal and opposite reaction torque. (A result of Newton's 3rd law of linear motion.)
Law of Falling Bodies
The law of falling bodies states that: 1.

A falling body in a vacuum accelerates at the rate of 32 feet, per second (9.8 m/s) during each second that it falls. This acceleration is called the acceleration of gravity, which is expressed mathematically as
g
. (In air, the body accelerates until it reaches its terminal velocity which is a constant velocity at which air resistance equals the force of gravity.) 2.

The velocity (
v
) of a falling body that falls from rest is found by multiplying g by the time (
) during which a body falls:
v = gt
3.

The total distance (
s
) a body falls is equal to half of the acceleration of gravity multiplied by the square of the time:
S=gt
2
/2

Kepler's three Laws of Planetary Motion
1. The Law of Orbits:
All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the sun at one focus.
2. The Law of Areas:
A line that connects a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
3. The Law of Periods:
The square of the period,
2
,

of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis,
R
3
, of its orbit.
Hooke's Law
Hooke's law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the extension of a spring is in direct  proportion with the load applied to it. Many materials obey this law as long as the load does not exceed the material's elastic limit. Mathematically, Hooke's law states that
F=-kx
, where:
x
is the displacement of the spring's end from its equilibrium position (a distance, in SI units: metres);
F
is the restoring force exerted by the spring on that end (in SI units: N or kg·m/s
2
); and
is a constant called the rate or spring constant (in SI units: N/m or kg/s
2
).
Stokes’ law

If the particles are falling in the viscous fluid by their own weight due to gravity, then a terminal velocity, also known as the settling velocity, is reached when this frictional force combined with the  buoyant force exactly balance the gravitational force. According to this law the resulting settling velocity (or terminal velocity) is given by: where:
v
s
is the particles' settling velocity (m/s) (vertically downwards if
ρ
p
>
ρ
f
, upwards if
ρ
p
<
ρ
f
),
g
2
),
ρ
p
is the mass density of the particles (kg/m
3
), and
ρ
f
is the mass density of the fluid (kg/m
3
).

3
Laws of thermodynamics
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantities  behave under various circumstances. 1.

Zeroth law of thermodynamics:
If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law helps define the notion of temperature. That is, if system A and system B are individually in thermal equilibrium with system C, then system A is in thermal equilibrium with system B. 2.

First Law of Thermodynamics:
Heat and work are forms of energy transfer. Energy is invariably conserved but the internal energy of a closed system changes as heat and work are transferred in or out of it. The first law of thermodynamics may be stated thus: Increase in internal energy of a body,

= heat supplied to the body,
Q
- work done by the  body,
W
. 3.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics:
This law states that in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state. This is also commonly referred to as entropy. 4.

Third law of thermodynamics:
The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches zero. The entropy of a system at absolute zero is typically zero, and in all cases is determined only by the number of different ground states it has. Specifically, the entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero temperature is zero.
Conservation laws
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves.
1.

The law of conservation of energy:
This states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. However, energy can change forms, and energy can flow from one place to another. The total energy of an isolated system remains the same.
2.

The law of conservation of momentum:
This states that the total linear momentum in any isolated system is constant, provided that no external force is applied and regardless of other  possible changes within the system.
3.

The law of conservation of angular momentum:
It states that when no external torque acts on an object or a closed system of objects, no change of angular momentum can occur. Hence, the angular momentum before an event involving only internal torques or no torques is equal to the angular momentum after the event.
4.

The law of conservation of charge:
Charge conservation is the principle that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. The net quantity of electric charge, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge in the universe, is always conserved.
5.

The law of conservation of electric charge:
This law
implies that “a
t any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node
”, or “t
he algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero
. Mathematically, we can state the law as a continuity equation: