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Was the Younger Dryas triggered by a flood?

Was the Younger Dryas triggered by a flood?

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Published by George Howard
The 2-km-long, 100-m-deep Ouimet Canyon is situated just north of Lake Superior. But no quartz-bearing rock suitable for dating has yet been found (quartz crystals can be acid-leached to remove contaminating 10Be atoms produced in the atmosphere and carried to the surface by rain. Hence quartz is the mineral of preference for 10Be studies). 10Be measurements on meter- size granitic boulders from west of Lake Nipigon yield an age of about 8400 years (12). This result provides a minimum age for the deglaciation of this area. Although a subice escape of water stored in Lake Agassiz may seem unlikely, it must be kept in mind that such an escape has been called on to explain the trig- gering of the 50-year cold snap that occurred 8200 years ago (13).
The 2-km-long, 100-m-deep Ouimet Canyon is situated just north of Lake Superior. But no quartz-bearing rock suitable for dating has yet been found (quartz crystals can be acid-leached to remove contaminating 10Be atoms produced in the atmosphere and carried to the surface by rain. Hence quartz is the mineral of preference for 10Be studies). 10Be measurements on meter- size granitic boulders from west of Lake Nipigon yield an age of about 8400 years (12). This result provides a minimum age for the deglaciation of this area. Although a subice escape of water stored in Lake Agassiz may seem unlikely, it must be kept in mind that such an escape has been called on to explain the trig- gering of the 50-year cold snap that occurred 8200 years ago (13).

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1146
vertebrate networks, only a small minority of signaling molecules (fibroblast growth factor, Nodal) and transcription factors (ZicL, FoxD,FoxA-a, Otx) affect the expression of a large frac-tion of the regulatory genes assayed. It will beinteresting to test whether the majority of genesstudied, which have few or no targets in the net-work, directly control differentiation genes. Thiswould suggest that the simple and rapidly devel-oping
Ciona
embryo may not need the cross-reg-ulatory interactions used to stabilize gene expres-sion patterns found in more slowly developingand also more complex embryos. Because exten-sive cross-regulatory interactions are a feature of kernels, the low level of connectivity of the
Ciona
network suggests their absence at the stages ana-lyzed. Another surprise is the prevalent—though probably indirect—use of negative autoregula-tory loops in the network. In contrast, very few positive autoregulatory loops were identified.This conflicts with the proposal that cell fatedetermination, which occurs very early in
Ciona
,is associated with the establishment of positiveregulatory loops that lock in a given fate (
4
).The structure of the current early
Ciona
net-work differs substantially from those of other deuterostomes. The maintenance of a chordate body plan in ascidians, in the absence of detectable kernels, may cast doubt upon the pro- posal that this type of subnetwork is important tostabilize a body plan across large evolutionarydistances. It should, however, be considered thatwithin a phylum, developmental strategies can bediverse in early embryos, converge at the phylo-typic stage, and diverge again when terminallydifferentiated structures form. The network ana-lyzed in the present work mainly covers pregas-trula stages, and forms a necessary first steptoward reconstructing networks for later stages inwhich chordate-specific kernels may be present.As it stands, the
Ciona
network has alreadyallowed researchers to identify novel key regula-tors of specific fates and illustrates that whole-embryo reconstruction of gene regulatory net-works is feasible provided that a suitable modelorganism is chosen. As was noted a few yearsago, “Ascidians are back in the limelight, with agood chance of staying there” (
14
).
References
1.F. Delsuc, H. Brinkmann, D. Chourrout, H. Philippe,
Nature
439
, 965 (2006).2.K. S. Imai, M. Levine, N. Satoh, Y. Satou,
 Science
312
,1183 (2006).3.E. H. Davidson, D. H. Erwin,
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311
, 796 (2006).4.E. H. Davidson
et al
.,
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295
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Draining of a huge lake into the NorthernAtlantic may have triggered a cold period~12,900 years ago. The route taken by theflood waters remains unknown.
 Was the Younger Dryas Triggeredby a Flood?
 Wallace S. Broecker
GEOLOGY 
A
s Earth’s surface warmed at the end of the last glacial period, the Laurentide icesheet that covered much of NorthAmerica retreated and a vast melt water lake— Lake Agassiz—formed in the area of today’sGreat Lakes. But the transition from glacial tointerglacial conditions was not smooth: Between~12,900 and ~11,500 years ago, cold conditionsreturned during the Younger Dryas. It is widely believed that this cold event wastriggered by a flood of fresh water that poured into the northern Atlantic (
1
) and disrupted the thermohaline ocean circulation (
2
). Theaccepted scenario (
3
) is that at some point dur-ing the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet,the northern and eastern shorelines of LakeAgassiz were breached, diverting the outflowfrom the lake eastward through Lake Superior and into the northern Atlantic via the St.Lawrence lowlands (see the first figure). Teller 
et al.
have argued that the initial flood caused  by the sudden drop in outlet elevation, rather than the subsequent steady-state dischargefrom the lake, was instrumental in causing theYounger Dryas (
4
).However, an aerial search to the west of LakeSuperior (
5
,
 6 
) yielded no visual evidence for flood channels or boulder fields that might sup- port the flood scenario. This absence is particu-larly disconcerting, because lesser floods thoughtto have occurred after the Younger Dryas created spectacular canyons (see the second figure) and  boulder fields. If not a flood, then what else mighthave triggered the Younger Dryas?Before considering alternate scenarios, a brief summary of the evidence in support of anAgassiz flood is in order. I will use radiocarbonrather than calendar years, because the exactconversion factor to calendar years remainsuncertain. The Younger Dryas occurred 11,100to 10,000 radiocarbon years ago.During the Bölling-Allerod warm intervalthat preceded the Younger Dryas, Lake Agassizoverflowed to the south over the Big StoneMoraine (see the first figure). Around 10,800
±
200 radiocarbon years ago, this overflowceased (
). At this time, the level of the lakemust have dropped to that of a newly created alternate outlet. The new level may have beenthat of the “Moorhead lowstand,” when LakeAgassiz stood more than 40 m below the levelof the southern outlet; radiocarbon ages for wood from the Moorhead lowstand fall withinthe span of the Younger Dryas (
5
). Oxygen isotope records from sediment coresfrom the Gulf of Mexico support the contentionthat the new outlet did not empty into theMississippi River drainage. Planktonic shellshave yielded a radiocarbon age of 11,100 years,marking the onset of a time of decreased inflowof
18
O-depleted glacial melt water into the Gulf of Mexico (
8
). This interval lasted until about10,000 radiocarbon years before the present and hence corresponds to the Younger Dryas timeinterval. But although the observed rise in
18
O is
The author is at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory,Columbia University, Palisades, NY10964, USA. E-mail:broecker@ldeo.columbia.edu
756555453525140 120 100 80 60
Northern routeEasternroute
Southernroute
LAKEAGASSIZ
Drainage pathways from Lake Agassiz
PERSPECTIVES
26 MAY 2006
 VOL 312
 SCIENCE
 www.sciencemag.org
Published by AAAS
 
consistent with a diversion of Agassiz outflow toan alternate pathway to the sea, it can also beexplained by a decrease in the rate of ice-sheetmelting during the cold Younger Dryas.A complementary drop in the
18
O in shellsfrom the St. Lawrence Valley at the onset of theYounger Dryas would provide support for theLake Agassiz flood scenario. In a recent paper (
9
), Brand and McCarthy present evidence for such a drop in mollusks from two sites south of Ottawa, Canada. However, the time of this dropis poorly constrained, and the event may postdatethe onset of the Younger Dryas. Furthermore, deVernal
et al 
. (
10
) find no evidence in sedimentsfrom the St. Lawrence Estuary for an eastward flow of melt water during the Younger Dryas. New radiocarbon ages for organic materialfrom the bottom of borings in small lakes in thearea west of Thunder Bay (
5
) suggest that thearea through which the proposed pre–Younger Dryas flood had to pass was not deglaciated until10,200 radiocarbon years ago, late in theYounger Dryas. These new radiocarbon ages areyounger than those for wood from the Moorhead lowstand of Lake Agassiz (up to 10,900 radio-carbon years before the present). The wood can-not be older than the time of diversion of meltwater to the presumed eastern outlet. Thus, it has been suggested that the oldest Moorhead wood isreworked (that is, it was transported after growth) (
5
). But there is another explanation:The area may have been deglaciated during theBölling-Allerod warm period and reglaciated during the Younger Dryas. If so, then the sedi-ment cores likely terminated in impenetrable siltdeposited during the ice retreat subsequent to theYounger Dryas.In the absence of geomorphic evidence for aneastern outlet, an alternate trigger for theYounger Dryas cold episode must be found.There are several possibilities.First, flood waters from Lake Agassiz mayhave escaped to the north rather than to the east.Indeed, there is clear evidence that a catastrophicflood passed through the Fort McMurray area(
11
). A 1-km-wide, 30-km-long channel marksthe path taken by these waters. At the channel’smouth, there is a large gravel field and beyond that, a huge apron of sand. However, thesedeposits are around 9800 radiocarbon years old and thus postdate the Younger Dryas. Of course,an earlier flood predating the Younger Dryasmay have passed through the same area, but, todate, no convincing physical evidence for suchan event has been found.Second, the water from Lake Agassiz mayhave escaped beneath the ice. Were this thecase, then no radiocarbon-datable materialrecording the event would exist, because noth-ing could grow under the ice roof. Further, boulders put in place by the subice flood would have
10
Be ages reflecting the time of deglacia-tion rather than the time of the flood (radioac-tive
10
Be atoms are produced within exposed  boulders by cosmic ray neutrons that shatter thenuclei of oxygen atoms; no such cosmic rayscould penetrate the ice roof 
)
. Indeed, there arespectacular canyons (see the first figure) and  boulder fields to the north of Thunder Bay (
3
).The 2-km-long, 100-m-deep Ouimet Canyon issituated just north of Lake Superior. But noquartz-bearing rock suitable for dating has yet been found (quartz crystals can be acid-leached to remove contaminating
10
Be atoms produced in the atmosphere and carried to the surface byrain.Hence quartz is the mineral of preferencefor
10
Be studies).
10
Be measurements on meter-size granitic boulders from west of Lake Nipigon yield an age of about 8400 years (
12
).This result provides a minimum age for thedeglaciation of this area. Although a subiceescape of water stored in Lake Agassiz mayseem unlikely, it must be kept in mind that suchan escape has been called on to explain the trig-gering of the 50-year cold snap that occurred 8200 years ago (
13
).Third, the fresh water that triggered the Younger Dryas may have originated from the melting of an armada of icebergs rather than from theescape of stored melt water. In three marine sed-iment cores from southeast of Hudson Straits, adetrital CaCO
3
-bearing horizon has been found (
14
 – 
16 
). Such horizons are believed to be caused  by armadas of icebergs shedding their debrisupon melting. Although not precisely dated, thishorizon appears to correlate with the Younger Dryas. However, no evidence for this icebergarmada is found in other sediment cores from thenorthern Atlantic, and the impact was therefore probably too small to have produced a shutdownof the ocean’s circulation. In a variant on this sce-nario, the subice escape of Agassiz water mayhave passed through the Hudson Bay carryingdebris-laden basal ice. In this case, the flood water rather than the melting of the entrained icewould have diluted the salt content of northernAtlantic waters.Of course, the Younger Dryas may not have been triggered by a catastrophic freshening of northern Atlantic surface waters at all. Seager and Battisti have argued that a temperatureanomaly in the tropics may have triggered ashift in the wind pattern over the northernAtlantic, in turn allowing sea ice to form (
17 
).As a consequence, the thermohaline conveyor was shut down. Although these detractors dis-agree regarding the nature of the trigger, theyagree that a reorganization of ocean circulationwas necessary to stabilize climate during the1400-year-long Younger Dryas.The Younger Dryas is unique to the termi-nation of the last glacial cycle. Ice cores fromGreenland and Antarctica show that during theYounger Dryas, the atmosphere’s methanecontent dropped from 680 to 460 parts per bil-lion (
18
). The core from Greenland does notextend to previous terminations, but that fromAntarctica records three earlier ones. None of these shows a Younger Dryas–like methanedrop (
19
). Hence, the Younger Dryas was likelytriggered by a freak event rather than by some-thing common to each glacial termination. Thesudden release of a large amount of stored fresh water qualifies as a freak event, becauseits occurrence depends on the detailed geome-try of the retreating ice front. Despite the flies in the flood ointmentdescribed above,my money remains on a flood of water stored in Lake Aggasiz. Otherwise, the con-fluence of dates for the cessation of the BigStone Moraine overflow, the Moorhead low-stand, and the rise in
δ
18
O in the Gulf of Mexicowould have to be attributed to coincidence. Butour inability to identify the path taken by theflood is disconcerting. Given that the Younger Dryas holds the key to understanding abrupt cli-mate change, further detailed studies of keyareas must be conducted. Of critical importanceis precise radiocarbon dating.
References and Notes
1.R. G. Johnson, B. T. McClure,
Quat 
.
Res
.
6
, 325 (1976).2.C. Rooth,
Prog
.
Oceanog
.
11
, 131 (1982).3.J. T. Teller, L. H. Thorleifson, in
Glacial Lake Agassiz
,J. T.Teller, L. Clayton, Eds. (Geological Association of Canada,St. John’s, Newfoundland, 1983), pp. 261–290.4.J. T. Teller, D. W. Leverington, J. D. Mann,
Quat 
.
 Sci 
.
Rev 
.
21
,879 (2002).5.T. V. Lowell
et al
.,
Eos
86
, 365 (2005).
1147
   C   R   E   D   I   T  :   (   F   I   R   S   T   F   I   G   U   R   E ,   P   H   O   T   O   S   )
   G   A   R   Y   C   O   M   E   R   /   L   A   N   D   S   E   N   D   C   L   O   T   H   I   N   G
LAKE SUPERIORLAKE NIPIGON9085
125
RabbitBouldersRabbit CanyonOuimet CanyonOuimet
Teller’s proposedflood route
Evidence for lesser floods thought to haveoccurred after the Younger Dryas.
(
Bottom left
)Ouimet Canyon appears to have been cut by floodwaters escaping from Lake Agassiz. No material suit-able for dating has been found. (
Bottom right
)Rabbit Canyon is one of the numerous channels tothe west of present day Lake Nipigon. Agraniticboulder from the mouth of a nearby channel has a
10
Be age of 8400 years, fixing the time of deglacia-tion of this site.
PERSPECTIVES
www.sciencemag.org
 SCIENCE
 VOL 31226 MAY 2006
Published by AAAS

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