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Unit 6 Fluids and Pressure
What is a fluid?
How is pressure defined?
Pressure due to liquid and atmosphere
What is gauge pressure

and absolute pressure

?
How is pressure measured?
What is blood pressure, systole

and diastole

?
How is the blood pressure measured?
Bernoulli’s principle

and its applications
1.Fluids and pressure in fluids
Fluids include all liquids and gases. Both the human respiratory and circulatory systemcontain fluids. Atmospheric pressure, hydraulic pressure, and blood pressure are allexamples of fluid pressure.
2. Definition of pressure
Pressure is the force applied perpendicularly to a surface of area A, and is calculated bythe following equation.
AFareaforce pressure
==
Pressure is measured in pascals. 1 Pascal is equal to 1 newton per square meter (N/m
2
).One Pascal is a small pressure. An apple exerts about 1000 Pascals (Pa) on your hand.The greater the area a force is applied to, the smaller the pressure.

3. Liquid pressure
1. Pressure in a liquid increases withdepth because of the greater amount of liquid pushing down.2. Pressure at a given depth acts equallyin all directions.3. The pressure at a given depth does notdepend on the shape of the vesselcontaining the liquid. It only depends onthe depth.4. Pressure depends on the density of the liquid. The denser the liquid, the greater the pressure at any given depth..Pressure due to the weight of a fluidh is the height of the liquid
ρ
is the density of the liquidg is the gravitational force (9.8 N/kg)The bottom of this container supports all of theweight of the liquid. The sides of the container donot exert any upward force because it is not possible for shear force to be applied on it.
4. Atmospheric pressure
The atmosphere also exerts fluid pressure on the Earth.
P
atm
is the static pressure exertedon Earth by the atmosphere at sea level.On a windless day, the column of air on 1.00 m
2
of Earth at sea level weighs about1.013x 10
5
N.
P
atm
= 1 atmospheric pressure (1

atm) = 1.013x 10
5
N/m
2
= 1.013 x 10
5
Pa

g h P
ρ
=

Example: At what depth does water exert the same amount of pressure as the entireatmosphere?Calculate the depth at which water exerts pressure equal to 1 atmospheric pressure.
g h P
ρ
=
, so h x 1000 kg/m
3
x 9.8 N/kg =1.013 x 105 N/m
2
h= 10.1 m
5. Gauge Pressure, absolute pressure
The pressure in the blood vessels include the pressure exerted by the blood,
and
the pressure exerted by the atmosphere. However, only the pressure exerted by the bloodmatters, since the atmospheric pressure is exerted on the blood going into the heart aswell as the blood coming out of the heart.The pressure exerted only on the blood is the
gauge pressure

(
Pg
)
. This pressure ismeasured relative to the atmospheric pressure (1 atm). This is the pressure that ismeasured when taking your blood pressure or car tire pressure.The total pressure (pressure of the blood plus the pressure of the atmosphere) is the
absolute pressure

(
P
abs
)
. This pressure is measured relative to a vacuum (0 atm).The total or absolute pressure is equal to the gauge pressure plus the atmospheric pressure.The comparison of two gauge pressures is called
relative pressure
or
differentialpressure
. Measurements of the pulmonary system

includes both gauge andrelative pressures.The atmospheric pressure is exerted on everything except for things in a rigid air-tightcontainer. This is because of Pascal’s principle.Absolute pressure is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
P
abs
= P
g
+ P
atm
absolute pressure in fluids cannot be negative.
the smallest absolute pressure is zero.
the smallest possible gauge pressure is
P
g

=
-P
atm

(i. e.
P
abs
is
zero)When the absolute pressure of a fluid is less than the value of
P
atm
, its gauge pressure isnegative.
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