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A Checklist of Proto-Celtic Lexical Items

A Checklist of Proto-Celtic Lexical Items

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Published by alanward
This checklist consists of all the reconstructed proto-Celtic forms I have succeeded in recovering from extant Celtic material, whether living or recently living Celtic languages (Irish, Scots Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Breton and Cornish) or extinct ones (Old British, Gaulish, Celtiberian, Lepontic etc). The material used in the reconstruction is given under each lemma. The work also includes as much morphological material as it is possible to reconstruct (quite a lot, in fact!). Any feedback will be most welcome.
Alan Ward (aka Alan Mac an Bhaird)
This checklist consists of all the reconstructed proto-Celtic forms I have succeeded in recovering from extant Celtic material, whether living or recently living Celtic languages (Irish, Scots Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Breton and Cornish) or extinct ones (Old British, Gaulish, Celtiberian, Lepontic etc). The material used in the reconstruction is given under each lemma. The work also includes as much morphological material as it is possible to reconstruct (quite a lot, in fact!). Any feedback will be most welcome.
Alan Ward (aka Alan Mac an Bhaird)

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Published by: alanward on Oct 05, 2009
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A CHECKLIST OF PROTO-CELTIC LEXICAL ITEMSA CHECKLIST OF PROTO-CELTIC LEXICAL ITEMSA CHECKLIST OF PROTO-CELTIC LEXICAL ITEMSA CHECKLIST OF PROTO-CELTIC LEXICAL ITEMS
 Alan Ward 1982, revised 1996  Alan Ward 1982, revised 1996  Alan Ward 1982, revised 1996  Alan Ward 1982, revised 1996 
METHODOLOGYCitation of formsCitation of formsCitation of formsCitation of forms1. Reconstructed Proto-Celtic forms are cited in upper case and must always be understoodas starred forms.2. Irish words are cited in standard classical Irish orthography. Any departure from thispractice is noted. Old Irish and Archaic Old Irish words are cited as they appear in the texts.3. Welsh words are cited in standard orthography. Old and Middle Welsh words are cited asthey appear in the texts.4. Cornish words are cited as they occur in the texts.5. Breton words are cited in standard orthography. Old and Middle Breton words are cited asthey appear in the texts.6. Gaulish, Lepontic and Celtiberian words and names are cited as they appear in inscriptionsor in classical Latin and Greek sources. In the latter case the classical author quoted is givenin parentheses after the word. When Gaulish forms have been reconstructed from remains inRomance vocabulary or nomenclature, they are starred and the Romance (or other) evidenceis cited after them.7. Nouns are quoted in the nominative singular wherever possible. Gender is indicatedwhenever possible. No further details of inflexion are given unless there is evidence that thisdiverged from the flectional paradigms given at the beginning of the work.8. Adjectives are quoted in the nominative singular masculine. Equative, comparative andsuperlative forms are quoted only when they diverge from the flectional paradigms given atthe beginning of the work.9. Verbs are quoted in the third person singular present indicative immediately followed by theverbal noun where this is not inferrable from the present indicative form. In the case of allverbs other than  and Î stems the present subjective, future indicative and aorist or perfectindicative tenses are quoted wherever possible in the third person singular whenever this isextant. The passive participle is also given where possible.10. Pronominal forms are quoted under the nominative wherever possible. Where this is notpossible, they are given under the accusative.ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences have been kept to a minimum. No reference is made to standard works in thecase of generally accepted reconstructions. Reference is made to articles published since theappearance of the standard works when these include detailed discussion of the entry inquestion.The followIng have been considered standard works:1. Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru.2. Roparzh Hemon: Dictiohnaire Breton-Français.3. A. Holder: Alt-Celtischer Sprachschatz.4. Kenneth Jackson: Language and History in Early Britain.5. Henry Lewis and Holger Pedersen: A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar.6. W. Meyer-Lübke: Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch.7. RIA Contributions to a Dictionary of the Irish language.
 
8. R.Thurneysen: A Grammar of Old Irish.9. J.Vendryes: Lexique étymologique de l'Irlandais Ancien.1O. Walde-Pokorny: Etymologisches Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen.11. Y Geiriadur Mawr.
 
Alphabetical order and writing of Common CelticAlphabetical order and writing of Common CelticAlphabetical order and writing of Common CelticAlphabetical order and writing of Common CelticThe following discrete letters have been used to represent reconstructed Proto-Celtic forms:A Â Ä B D E Ê F G I Î K L M N O Q R S T U Û W YThey are self-explanatory except that Ä represents the vowel that gave E in proto-Goidelic butA elsewhere, while F (always in the combination SF) represents the consonant that developedout of PIE pppp in the group spspspsp and fell together with wwww in proto-Goidelic but remained as f felsewhere.A Â Ä are treated as A, E Ê as E, I Î as I and U Û as U for the purposes of alphabetical order.Abbreviationsa. accusative MB Middle BretonAOI Archaic Old Irish MW Middle Welshaor. aorist indicative n.neuteAU Annals of Ulster ND Notitia DignitatumB Breton nom.nominativeC Cornish OB Old BretonCat.CatalanOBr Old BritishCelt. Celtica (journal) OC Old CornishCI Celtiberian Occ. Occitancs. causative OCS Old Church Slavonicd. dative OE Old Englishdu. dual OFr Old FrenchEC Études Celtiques Og Oghamf. feminineOHG Old High GermanFr French OI Old Irishfut. future indicative ON Old NorseG Gaulish OW Old Welshg. genitivep. pluralGoth. Gothic perf. perfect indicativeHitt. Hittite pppast participle passiveI Irish PT Peutinger TablesIA Antonine ItineraryRav anonymousgeographer of RavennaIES Indo-European Studiess. singulaintr. intransitive SC Studia CelticaIt. ItalianSG Scots GaelicJCS Journal of Celtic StudiesSk SanskritLLeponticsub. present subjunctiveLat. Latin tr. transitiveLith. Lithuanian vn. verbal nounLLat. Late Latin WWelshm. masculine

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