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Published by mawel

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Published by: mawel on Oct 05, 2009
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It could happen when chopping a tomato too quickly, stepping on a sharp object such as a nail or beingcareless when trimming that board for your weekend project. We have all experienced cuts, scrapes orpunctures at some point. Most often these can be treated at home.
Wash the cut with soap and water
Apply direct pressure to the cut to stop the bleeding
Use an antibacterial ointment to help prevent infection
Protect the cut from dirt by covering it with a clean bandage
Seek emergency care if:
Bleeding is severe, spurting or does not stop after 15 minutes of pressure
 The wound is large or deep
 The cut is more than a quarter inch deep
 The injury is caused by a rusty object, fishhook, animal bite or nail
 There is debris in the wound
 There are signs of infection – warmth and redness, a painful or throbbing sensation, fever, swellingor a pus-like discharge
 You have not had a tetanus shot within the last 10 years
Broken Bones
From church softball leagues and bicycle rides to car accidents and falls from tree houses, the potential forbroken bones is all around us. If you do break a bone, you’ll need to seek immediate medical attention.
Signs of a break:
• Misshapen limb or joint• Swelling, bruising or bleeding• Severe pain• Numbness and tingling• Limited mobility or cannot move the limb
Fracture first aid:
• Apply pressure to the wound with a clean cloth or sterile bandage to stop any bleeding.• Do not try to realign the bone. Keep the injured area immobilized.• Apply ice packs to the injured area to reduce swelling and relieve pain. Do not apply ice directlyto the skin – wrap ice in a towel or cloth.• Feeling faint or being short of breath could be signs of shock. Lay the person down with their feetelevated if possible.
Burns are categorized by their severity, ranging from first or second degree to third degree.A first degree burn is the least serious of the three and only involves the outer layer of skin. Firstdegree burns cause the skin to appear red and may involve swelling and pain. An example would be a sunburn.Second degree burns occur when the first layer of skin has been burned through, causing thesecond layer of skin to be burned. In this case, blisters will develop and the skin will appear very red andsplotchy, accompanied by severe pain and swelling. These burns can occur from sun exposure or contactwith ovens, irons, BBQ grills or fireworks.A third degree burn is the most serious category, involving all layers of the skin and possiblymuscle and bone. A third degree burn causes the skin to appear charred black or dry and white and resultsin permanent tissue damage.
Treating minor burns:
• Cool the burn by holding it under cold running water, submerging it in cold water or applying coldcompresses.• Keep the burn covered with loosely tied soft gauze.• Use an over-the-counter pain reliever to alleviate pain.Do not apply ice directly to the burned area as this could further damage the skin.
Treating major burns:
• Seek emergency medical care• Do not remove burned clothing
• Do not submerge large, severe burns in cold water• Ensure that the person is breathing and that circulation is flowing• If possible, elevate the burned portion of the body above the level of the heart• Cover the burned area with a cool, moist bandage
Chemical Burns
Chemical burns can occur when strong acids or alkalies come in contact with the skin and/or theeyes.Caring for chemical burns:
Rinse exposed area with running water for 20 minutes; a hose is preferable but you may use ashower or faucet.
Carefully remove the contaminated clothing, making sure not to touch the unaffected skin with thecontaminated clothing. Cut clothing away, if necessary.
If the chemical has splashed into your child's eyes, begin rinsing his/her eyes immediately andcontinue doing so until medical help has arrived. If your child wears contact lenses, try to removethem.
Cover the burned area loosely with a dry, clean cloth.
If the chemical your child has been exposed to is a dry or powdered chemical, it may not benecessary to rinse the area with water. Instead of rinsing, gingerly wipe the powder from the skinand check the package enclosure for emergency advice.
Seek medical attention or dial 911 for emergency medical attention.
Heat or Thermal Burns
A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source,such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface or a hot, scalding liquid.Caring for a heat-induced or thermal burn:
Remove the child from the heat source.
Cool the affected area with cold water or cold compresses until pain is reduced or alleviated.
If a blister has formed, do not break it.
Protect the burn with a dry, sterile, gauze bandage or with a clean bed sheet or cloth.
If your child's clothing is stuck to the burned area, do not attempt to remove it. Instead, cut aroundthe clothing leaving the burn intact.
Do not apply any ointments, oils, or sprays to the burned area.
If the burn is serious, seek medical attention or dial 911 for emergency medical attention.
Head Injuries
More than half a million people are hospitalized each year as a result of severe head injuries. These can becaused by anything from slipping on ice (and hitting your head) to car or sporting accidents.
Seek emergency care if:
• There is loss of consciousness• The person is confused, drowsy or lethargic or becomes restless, clumsy or loses coordination• There is severe head or facial bleeding• The person is on blood thinning medications, such as Plavix or Coumadin/Warfarin• The person stops breathing• The person experiences convulsions• The person’s pupil’s change in size or there is blurred vision• There are personality changes or unusual behavior
Choking is an emergency. Call 911 emergency medical services. Do not attempt to drive achoking person to a hospital emergency department.What to do if a person starts to choke:
It is best not to do anything if the person is coughing forcefully and not turning a bluishcolor. Ask, "Are you choking?" If the person is able to answer you by speaking, it is apartial airway obstruction. Stay with the person and encourage him or her to cough untilthe obstruction is cleared.
Do not give the person anything to drink because fluids may take up space needed for thepassage of air.
Someone who cannot answer by speaking and can only nod the head has a completeairway obstruction and needs emergency help. The American Heart Association recommends the following:
 The treatment for a choking person who begins to turn blue or stops breathing varies withthe person's age. In adults and children older than one year of age, abdominal thrusts(formerly referred to as the "Heimlich maneuver") should be attempted. This is a thrustthat creates an artificial cough. It may be forceful enough to clear the airway.
 The quick, upward abdominal thrusts force the diaphragm upward very suddenly, makingthe chest cavity smaller. This has the effect of rapidly compressing the lungs and forcingair out. The rush of air out will force out whatever is causing the person to choke.
How to perform abdominal thrustsLean the person forward slightly and stand behind him or her. Make a fist with one hand.Put your arms around the person and grasp your fist with your other hand in the midline just below the ribs. Make a quick, hard movement inward and upward in an attempt toassist the person in coughing up the object. This maneuver should be repeated until theperson is able to breathe or loses consciousness. (See diagram below.)
If the person loses consciousness gently lay him or her flat on their back on the floor. Toclear the airway, kneel next to the person and put the heel of your hand against themiddle of the abdomen, just below the ribs. Place your other hand on top and press inward

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