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Writing a paper synopsis

Writing a paper synopsis



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Published by Ignatia
how to write a paper, some short guidelines
how to write a paper, some short guidelines

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Published by: Ignatia on Feb 11, 2008
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Writing a paper: my synopsis
Based on two sources:Writing a paper – by George M Hall – third edition (referenced with pages in this post)San Francisco Edit:http://www.sfedit.net/newsletters.htm 
 Readers must be able to
Assess the observations you made
Repeat the experiment if they wish;
Determine whether the conclusions drawn are justified by the data.
Some pointers:
Search a peer review journal with best reputation in publishing for your domain.Journals of societies have a larger circulation. Is the journal referenced a lot?
Use active verbs and clear subjects (not ‘several’ but ‘three’, not ‘somewhere’ but‘in the Maritime region of Canada’
Make every sentence useful, no blabla
Explain abbreviations before including them
Help the editor by using the format (style sheet) journals prescribe
Write the first draft without hesitation, editing comes afterwards
Guidelines on figures and tables:http://www.sfedit.net/tabfig.pdf  
Step 1: references – always start with the literature/research that is already outthere
The references are the backbone of your paper. They provide the scientific backgroundthat justifies the research you have undertaken and the methods you have used. They provide the context in which your research should be interpreted.References should be limited to relevant ones with clear scientific interest (too manyreferences shows insecurity of the author)Whenever you find a reference, archive them in a clear bibliographical way (use Zoterofor instance)
The Vancouver format is preferred for scientific references:
Journal article:
Surnames and initials of authors. Full title of paper.
Title of journal 
Year of publication;
Volume number
: First and last page numbers of article.Example: de Waard I., Writeress G. Best practices in building mobile courses. eLearningMagazine 2100;55:123-234.
Book or monograph
Surname and initials of authors.
 Full title of book 
. Number of edition. Town of  publication: Publisher, Year of publication.Example: de Waard I.
 Putting humour into eLearning 
. 3
edition. Antwerp: Epo, 2010.
Chapter in multi-author book 
Chapter author (surnames and initials). Chapter title. Book authors or editors (surnamesand initials).
 Book title
. Town of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. First and last pages.
Step 2: make an outline
This is the blue print of your paper.Summary (from San Francisco edit:http://www.sfedit.net/outline.pdf )
Develop a central message of the manuscript
Define the materials and methods
Summarize the question(s) and problem(s)
Define the principal findings and results
Describe the conclusions and implications
Organize and group related ideas together
Identify the references that pertain to each key point
Develop the introduction
The basic structure of a paper:
IMRaD (p1)2.1 Introduction
: what question was asked?
2.2 Methods
: how was it studied?
2.3 Results
: what was found?and
2.4 Discussion
: what do the findings mean.
2.1 Introduction:
One sentence says it all and engages the reader. Not more than one paragraph to explicitthe first sentence. Keep it short, arresting and clear, usually between 300 – 500 words.(From San Francisco Edit:http://www.sfedit.net/intro.pdf  )
Begin the Introduction by providing a concise
account of the problemstudied.
State the
of the investigation. Your research objective is the mostimportant part of the introduction.
Establish the
of your work: Why was there a need to conduct thestudy?
Introduce the reader to the pertinent
. Do not give a full history of thetopic. Only quote previous work having direct bearing on the present problem.
Clearly state your 
, the variables investigated, and concisely summarizethe methods used.
any abbreviations or specialized terms.
Provide a concise
of the results and findings of other studies so the
reader understands the big picture.
Describe some of the major 
 presented in your manuscript and explainhow they contribute to the larger field of research.
State the principal
derived from your results.
Identify any
left unanswered and any new questions generated by your study.
Other points to consider when writing your Introduction:
Be aware of who will be reading your manuscript and make sure the Introductionis directed to that audience.
Move from general to specific: from the problem in the real world to the literatureto your research.
Write in the present tense except for what you did or found, which should be inthepast tense.
Be concise.Or plain and simple: what is the elevator pitch
2.2 Methods:
“This section should describe, in logical sequence, how your study was designed andcarried out and how you analyzed your data. “ (p16) A clear method should be described before starting a study.“If your research aims to answer a question, you should state exactly what hypothesiswas tested” (p16) Always state clearly the a priori hypotheses (p17)When you use statistics, give the exact tests used to analyses the data statistically.A good methods section can answer these questions (p21)
Does the text describe what question was being asked, what was being tested, andhow trustworthy the measurements of the variable under consideration would be?
Were these trustworthy measurements recorded, analyzed, and interpretedcorrectly?
Would a suitably qualified reader be able to repeat the experiment in the sameway?How the study was carried out (p18)
Describe how the participants were recruited and chosen
Give reasons for excluding participants
Consider mentioning ethical features
Give accurate details of materials used
Give exact data

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