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13-4178 Amicus Brief of Paul McHugh

13-4178 Amicus Brief of Paul McHugh

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Published by Equality Case Files
[10148539] Amicus Brief of Dr. Paul McHugh in support of Defendants. Filed in both Kitchen (Utah) and Bishop (Oklahoma).
[10148539] Amicus Brief of Dr. Paul McHugh in support of Defendants. Filed in both Kitchen (Utah) and Bishop (Oklahoma).

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Published by: Equality Case Files on Feb 11, 2014
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04/16/2014

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Docket Nos. 13-4178, 14-5003, 14-5006
 In the
United States Court of ppeals
 for the
 
Tenth Circuit
 
DEREK KITCHEN, individually, et al.,
Plaintiffs and Appellees,
v. GARY R. HERBERT, in his official capacity as Governor of Utah, et al.,
 Defendants and Appellants.
  _______________________________________ MARY BISHOP, et al.,
Plaintiffs and Appellees,
and SUSAN G. BARTON, et al.,
Plaintiffs, Appellees and Cross-Appellants,
v. SALLY HOWE SMITH, in her official capacity as Court Clerk for Tulsa County, State of Oklahoma,
 Defendant, Appellant and Cross-Appellee.
 
 _______________________________________
Case No. 13-4178: Appealed from a Decision of the United States District Court  for the District of Utah
 ·
Civil Case No. 13-CV-00217-RJS 
 ·
 Honorable Robert J. Shelby Case Nos. 14-5003 and 14-5006: Appealed from a Decision of the United States District Court  for the Northern District of Oklahoma
 ·
Civil Case No. 04-CV-848-TCK-TLW 
 ·
 Honorable Terence C. Kern
BRIEF OF
 AMICUS CURIAE
 DR. PAUL McHUGH IN SUPPORT OF DEFENDANTS-APPELLANTS AND REVERSAL
G
ERARD
V.
 
B
RADLEY
,
 
E
SQ
.  NOTRE DAME LAW SCHOOL 3156 Eck Hall  Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (574) 631-8385 Telephone (574) 631-8078 Facsimile Email: Gerard.V.Bradley.16@nd.edu
 
EVIN
T.
 
S
 NIDER 
,
 
E
SQ
. PACIFIC JUSTICE INSTITUTE 212 9th Street, Suite 208 Oakland, California 94607 (510) 834-7232 Telephone (510) 834-8784 Facsimile Email: KSnider@pji.org
 Attorneys for Amicus Curiae Dr. Paul McHugh
 
C
OUNSEL
P
RESS
·
 
(800) 3-APPEAL
 
P
RINTED
O
 N
ECYCLED
P
APER 
 
Appellate Case: 13-4178 Document: 01019200393 Date Filed: 02/10/2014 Page: 1
Docket Reference Number: [10148539]
 
 i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES .................................................................................... ii
 
INTEREST OF AMICUS CURIAE ......................................................................... 1
 
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT ................................................................................. 1
 
ARGUMENT ............................................................................................................. 3
 
I.
 
Sexual Orientation Does Not Define a Discrete and Insular Minority. .......... 3
 
A.
 
Threshold Questions Prevent this Court from Defining a Class Based on Sexual Orientation with Sufficient Clarity. ................. 3
 
B.
 
Social Science Experts Raise Serious Doubts About the Definability of Sexual Orientation. ................................................. 7
 
II.
 
Sexual Orientation is Not an Immutable Characteristic. ............................... 14
 
A.
 
Immutability Means Solely an Accident of Birth. .............................. 14
 
B.
 
Sexual Orientation Is Not
Solely
an Accident of Birth. ...................... 15
 
C.
 
Sexual Orientation Can and Often Does Change Over Time. ............ 20
 
CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................ 27
 
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE WITH RULE 32(A) ..................................... 28
 
CERTIFICATE OF DIGITAL SUBMISSION ....................................................... 29
 
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE ................................................................................ 30
 
Appellate Case: 13-4178 Document: 01019200393 Date Filed: 02/10/2014 Page: 2
 
 ii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES Cases
 Ben-Shalom v. Marsh
, 881 F. 2d 454 (7th Cir. 1989) .......................................................................... 4
  Burlington N. R.R. Co. v. Ford 
, 504 U.S. 648 (1992)......................................................................................... 4
 Citizens for Equal Prot. v. Bruning
, 455 F.3d 859 (8th Cir. 2006) ........................................................................... 4
 City of Cleburne, Tex. v. Cleburne Living Ctr.
, 473 U.S. 432 (1985)................................................................................. 5, 6, 7
  Equal. Found. of Greater Cincinnati, Inc. v. City of Cincinnati
, 128 F.3d 289 (6th Cir. 1997) ........................................................................... 4
 Frontiero v. Richardson
, 411 U.S. 677 (1973)....................................................................................... 14
 Gomez v. Perez
, 409 U.S. 535 (1973)....................................................................................... 14
 Graham v. Richardson
, 403 U.S. 365 (1971)....................................................................................... 14
  Johnson v. Johnson
, 385 F.3d 503 (5th Cir. 2004) ........................................................................... 4
  Lawrence v. Texas
, 539 U.S. 558 (2003)......................................................................................... 3
  Locke v. Davey
, 540 U.S. 712 (2004)......................................................................................... 4
  Lofton v. Sec’y of Dep’t of Children & Family Servs.
, 358 F.3d 804 (11th Cir. 2004) ......................................................................... 4
  Lyng v. Castillo
, 477 U.S. 635 (1986)................................................................................... 5, 14
 
Appellate Case: 13-4178 Document: 01019200393 Date Filed: 02/10/2014 Page: 3

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