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Nirmala Essay

Nirmala Essay

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Published by Cloud Wind
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Published by: Cloud Wind on Feb 11, 2014
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Phonetics and Phonology Essay Question
Requirement of the question :
 
Discussion of any two consonant pronunciation problems among non-native speakers of English in Malaysia
 
Appropriate solutions for the problems identified
 
Supported with relevant examples
Problems
 :
 
/ð/ and /
θ
/
 –
 all non-native speaker in Malaysia
 
/l/ and /r/
 –
 mainly Chinese speakers
 
Absence of /h/ and /j/ in initial position of words and /v/ and /w/ - mainly Indian speakers
Possible solutions
 :
 
Demonstrate place and manner of articulation
 
Practice : Minimal pairs drills,tongue twister,rhymes,jazz chants
Problems
 : Malay speakers
 
/f/ often replaced with /p/
 
/
 ʃ 
/ often replaced with /s/
 
/v/ often replaced with /b/
 
/ks/ often replaced with /k/
Problem
 : Consonant clusters
 
Inserting schwa in both initial and final consonant clusters E.g : pleasant - /pleznt/ not /p
ə
lez
ə
nt/ breakable
 –
 /bre
ɪ
k
ə  
/ not /b
ə
re
ɪ
k
ə  
/
Possible solutions
:
 
Awareness
 –
 raising with regard to the structure of consonant clusters.
 
Practice pronouncing words with consonant clusters via drilling, rhymes, etc.
 
1.
 
Non-native speakers in Malaysia have problems in pronunciation,particularly certain consonant sounds.Discuss at least two consonant pronunciation problems and suggest ways to overcome the problems.
 
 Requirement of the question :
 
Definition
 –
 2 aspects of connected speech
 
Explanation
 –
 how they make an impact in our daily communication
 
Relevant examples
Introduction
 
In natural speech,we do not pronounce a word, stop ,then say the next word in the sentence
 
Fluent speech flows with a rhythm and the words bump into each other
 
To make the speech flow smoothly,the way we pronounce the end and the beginning of some words can change depending on the sounds at the beginning and the end of those words
 
These changes are described as features of connected speech
Assimilation
 :
 
The way sounds belonging to one word changes when occurring with sounds that belong to neighbouring words in rapid,casual speech E.g : /t/ becomes /p/ before a bilabial consonant
 –
 meat pie - /mi:p pa
ɪ
/ - light blue - /la
ɪ
p blu:/ : /d/ becomes /b/ or /g/ - good boy - g
ʊ
b b
ɔɪ
 -good girl - g
ʊ
g g
ɜː
l
Linking ‘r’
 :
 
/r/ inserted in /
ə
/, /
ɔ
/ and /
ɑː
/ if the following words begin with vowel E.g : here are - /h
ɪə
 
ə
/ become /h
ɪə
 r
ə
/ Four eggs - /f 
ɔː egz/
 become /f 
ɔː
regz/ media event - /
miːdɪə
 
ɪ
vent/ becomes /
miːdɪə
r
ɪ
vent/
2. Aspects of connected speech have an impact in our daily communication.Discuss at least two aspects of connected speech with examples.
 
Liasons :
 
Combining of two sounds /d/ and /j/ to become one
 
 
E.g : reduce - /r
ɪˈ
 
ʤuːs/
 :did you - /d
ɪʤʊ
/
Strong and weak form
 : In the phonology of stress-timed languages,the weak form of a word is a form that may be used when the word has no stress and which phonemically distinct from the strong form used when a word is stressed.
E.g : The word ‘and’ has a strong form [
ænd] and weak form [
ə
nd]
 –
 [
ə
n],[nd],[n]
: The word ‘to’ has a strong form [to] .weak form [
t
ʊ
] before vowels and weak form [t
ə
] before consonants (or even before
a vowe ,repacing the ‘t’ with a gotta sound or a fap).
 
Requirement of the question:
 
Definition of accents of English
 
Discussion
 –
 the extend to which it affects one comprehension and communication with others
 
Relevant examples
Introduction
Languages have different accents.They are being pronounced differently due to the fact that these people are from different geographical places,social places,ages and backgrounds.Stress is an umbrella term to cover both accent (word stress)
 –
 belongs to a word and prominence (sentence stress). Differences of accents refer to differences of pronunciation,stress,rhythm and intonation patterns. Connected speech contains both word accents (regardless of speaker) and prominence (because of the
speaker).In speech the individua word accent is ikey to e suordinated to the speaker’s choice of
prominence.
3.Accent of English in the world can affect your comprehension and communication with others.Discuss and provide relevant examples to support your answer.

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