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Summary of the ICTR Appeal Judgement - A. Ndindiliyimana, FX. Nzuwonemeye and I. Sagahutu - 11 Feb. 2014

Summary of the ICTR Appeal Judgement - A. Ndindiliyimana, FX. Nzuwonemeye and I. Sagahutu - 11 Feb. 2014

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Published by Kagatama
Summary of the ICTR Appeal Judgement - A. Ndindiliyimana, FX. Nzuwonemeye and I. Sagahutu - 11 Feb. 2014
Summary of the ICTR Appeal Judgement - A. Ndindiliyimana, FX. Nzuwonemeye and I. Sagahutu - 11 Feb. 2014

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Published by: Kagatama on Feb 11, 2014
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Before: Judge Theodor Meron, Presiding Judge Liu Daqun Judge Care! Agius Judge "ha!ida Ra#hid "han Judge Ba$h%i&ar Tu'u$haedo( Regis%rar: Mr) Bongani Ma*o!a Judgeen% of: ++ e-ruar& ./+0
Case No. ICTR-00-56-A
Counse! for Augus%in Ndindi!i&iana:
Mr. Christopher Black Mr. Vincent Lurquin
 Counse! for ran;ois67a(ier N'u<onee&e:
 Mr. Charles A. Taku Ms. Beth S. Lyons
Counse! for Inno#en% Sagahu%u:
 Mr. Fabien Segatwa Mr. Scott Martin Mr. ayne !or"ash
The 5ffi#e of %he Prose#u%or:
Mr. #assan Bubacar !allow Mr. !a$es !. Arguin Mr. Ab"oulaye Seye Mr. Abubacarr Ta$ba"ou Ms. The$bile M. Segoete Ms. Flori"a %abasinga Mr. Takeh Sen"&e Ms. Christiana Fo$enky Ms. Sunkarie Ballah'Conteh Ms. Betty Mbaba&i Mr. (eo Mbuto
)*+T,( *AT+-*S *AT+-*S )*+,S
Tri-una! P=na! In%erna%iona! >our !e R<anda In%erna%iona! Criina! Tri-una! for R<anda
. The Appeals Cha$ber is sitting to"ay in accor"ance with /ule 0 o1 the Tribunal2s /ules o1 3roce"ure an" ,4i"ence in the case o1
The Prosecutor v. Augustin Ndindiliyimana, ran!ois- "avier N#u$onemeye, and Innocent %agahutu
. All parties5 inclu"ing the 3rosecution5 appeale" against the Trial !u"ge$ent ren"ere" in this case by Trial Cha$ber ++ o1 the Tribunal on 6 May 78 an" issue" in writing on 6 !une 78. +n accor"ance with the Sche"uling -r"er o1 9 *o4e$ber 78:5 the Appeals Cha$ber will presently "eli4er the ;u"ge$ent in this case. 7. -n 6 February 78<5 the Appeals Cha$ber issue" an or"er se4ering the case o1 Augustin Bi&i$ungu5 who ha" been trie" with *"in"iliyi$ana5 *&uwone$eye5 an" Sagahutu5 an" whose appeal was hear" with theirs. The Appeals Cha$ber will "eli4er its ;u"ge$ent on Bi&i$ungu2s appeal an" the 3rosecution appeal relate" to his case in "ue course a1ter consi"ering the 1urther sub$issions or"ere". :. Following the practice o1 the Tribunal5 not e4ery point a""resse" in the ;u"ge$ent will be $entione" in this su$$ary5 which 1ocuses only on central issues. This su$$ary "oes not constitute any part o1 the authoritati4e written ;u"ge$ent o1 the Appeals Cha$ber5 which will be 1ile" in writing in "ue course.
<. *"in"iliyi$ana is the 1or$er Chie1 o1 Sta11 o1 the /wan"an gen"ar$erie. The Trial Cha$ber con4icte" *"in"iliyi$ana as a superior 1or genoci"e an" e=ter$ination as a cri$e against hu$anity base" on the participation o1 gen"ar$es in an attack on %ansi 3arish. +t also 1oun" hi$ guilty as a superior 1or genoci"e an" $ur"er as a serious 4iolation o1 Article : co$$on to the >ene4a Con4entions an" o1 A""itional 3rotocol ++ in relation to cri$es co$$itte" by gen"ar$es at Saint An"r? College. The Trial Cha$ber also con4icte" *"in"iliyi$ana o1 $ur"er as a cri$e against hu$anity. The Trial Cha$ber sentence" *"in"iliyi$ana to a single sentence o1 ti$e ser4e" an" or"ere" his i$$e"iate release on 6 May 78.
A) airness of %he Pro#eedings
9. *"in"iliyi$ana sub$its that the Trial Cha$ber 1aile" to pro4i"e su11icient re$e"ies in light o1 the 3rosecution2s 4iolation o1 its "isclosure obligations pursuant to /ule @0 o1 the /ules that the Tribunal2s "ecisions concerning allege" prosecutorial $iscon"uct were in error an" that the procee"ings were un"uly "elaye". The Appeals Cha$ber 1in"s that *"in"iliyi$ana has 1aile" to "e$onstrate any error that ren"ere" his trial un1air. Accor"ingly5 it "is$isses these argu$ents.
B) "ansi Parish
@. The Trial Cha$ber 1oun" that5 on 7 April <5 gen"ar$es assigne" to guar" *"in"iliyi$ana2s resi"ence in *yaruhengeri pro4i"e" weapons to an" assiste"
in the attack at the nearby parish. The Trial Cha$ber 1urther hel" that the gen"ar$es statione" at *"in"iliyi$ana2s resi"ence
were his subor"inates acting un"er his control5 an" that *"in"iliyi$ana knew or ha" reason to know that they ha" co$$itte" cri$es at %ansi 3arish5 but 1aile" to punish the$. 6. The Trial Cha$ber 1oun" that5 a1ter 6 April <5 the operational co$$an" o4er the $a;ority o1 gen"ar$erie
units was trans1erre" to the /wan"an ar$y an" that *"in"iliyi$ana there1ore no longer e=ercise" e11ecti4e control o4er gen"ar$es
who ha" been "eploye" to assist the ar$y in co$bat against the /3F. The Trial Cha$ber hel"5 howe4er5 that *"in"iliyi$ana retaine" 1ull
de &ure
authority o4er appro=i$ately 788 gen"ar$es not "eploye" to assist the ar$y in co$bat. ith respect to these gen"ar$es5 the Trial Cha$ber acknowle"ge" that *"in"iliyi$ana su11ere" 1ro$ a lack o1 resources an" 1ace" "i11iculties in co$$unicating with gen"ar$erie units on the groun" his 1orce was in1iltrate" by e=tre$ists an" rogue ele$ents an" his $aterial ability to control the gen"ar$es
un"er his operational co$$an" "ecrease" as the war progresse". For these reasons5 the Trial Cha$ber consi"ere" that *"in"iliyi$ana "i" not e=ercise e11ecti4e control o4er all gen"ar$es
un"er his operational co$$an" an" that his D$aterial ability to pre4ent an"Eor punish cri$es
 4arie" consi"erably between "i11erent
 unitsG. 0. At the ti$e o1 the attack at %ansi 3arish on 7 April <5 *"in"iliyi$ana2s resi"ence in *yaruhengeri was guar"e" by a nu$ber o1 gen"ar$es who ha" been "eploye" by the co$$an"er o1 the Butare gen"ar$erie unit base" on a personal request 1or protection by *"in"iliyi$ana2s wi1e. The Trial Cha$ber conclu"e" that *"in"iliyi$ana e=ercise" D
de 'acto
 authorityG o4er these gen"ar$es because they ha" been Dgathere"G by his wi1e an" *"in"iliyi$ana ha" Da"$itte"G at trial that he woul" ha4e known ha" they participate" in the attack at %ansi 3arish. +t also state" that the gen"ar$es belonge" to units un"er the operational co$$an" o1 the gen"ar$erie
an" that their operation at %ansi 3arish entaile" a "egree o1 organi&ation an" there1ore 1oun" that D
t 1ollows 1ro$ *"in"iliyi$ana2s position as Chie1 o1 Sta11 o1 the
that the
in question were his subor"inates un"er his e11ecti4e controlG. . The Appeals Cha$ber 1in"s that the Trial Cha$ber 1aile" to e=plain the basis o1 its 1in"ing that the gen"ar$es guar"ing *"in"iliyi$ana2s house ca$e 1ro$ a unit un"er his operational co$$an". Further$ore5 the Appeals Cha$ber 1in"s that5 base" on the e4i"ence re1erre" to in the

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