The world historical significance of Hegel’s accommodation consists precisely in the fact that hegrasped-as only Balzac beside him -the revolutionary development of the bourgeoisie as a unitary process, one in which the revolutionary Terror as well as Thermidor and Napoleon were only necessary phases. The heroic period of the revolutionary bourgeoisie becomes in Hegel-just asantiquity does -something irretrievably past, but a past which was absolutely necessary for theemergence of the unheroic prose of the present considered to be progressive; for the emergenceof advanced bourgeois society with its economic and social contradictions. The fact that thisconception is marred both by all the faults of an accommodation to the wretchedness of thePrussian and German situation and by all the mystifications of the idealist dialectic cannotdiminish its world-historical significance. But with all its defects it is one of the great paths whichleads to the future and to the elaboration of the materialist dialectic.Hölderlin always refused to recognize this as the correct way. But even his thinking could notremain unaffected by the reality which emerged after Thermidor. Hegel’s Frankfurt period, theperiod in which he turns to historical methodology, is precisely the period of their second, moremature association and collaboration. But for Hölderlin, the post-Thermidorian developmentsuggests only a sloughing off of the ascetic elements of the ideal conception of Hellenism, only agreater accentuation of Athens as a model as opposed to the unbending Spartan and Roman virtue of the French Jacobins. He continues to remain a republican. Even in his later work,Empedocles, the hero answers the Acragantines who offer him the crown: “This is the age of kings no longer,” and he preaches-in mystic forms it is true-the ideal of a radically revolutionary renovation of mankind: What is told and taught you from the lips of the fathers, Laws and customs, the names of theancient gods, Boldly forget them and, like new born men, Lift your eyes to divine Nature![Was euch der Vater Mund erzahlt, gelehrt, Gesetz’ und Brauch’, der alten Gotter Namen, Vergesst es kiihn und hebt, wie Neugebome, Die Augen auf zur gottlichen Natur! ] This Nature is that of Rousseau and Robespierre, the dream of a transformation of society which-without Hölderlin’s raising the question of private property in a clear manner-restores theperfect harmony of man with a society which is adequate to him, with Nature itself through asociety which has become natural again. “The ideal is what Nature was,” says Hölderlin’sHyperion some- what in the manner of Schiller, but going far beyond him in revolutionary fervour. And for Hölderlin, Hellenism is precisely the ideal which was living reality, Nature.“Formerly the peoples started from a childlike harmony,” Hyperion continues. “The harmony of the spirits will be the beginning of a new universal history.”“All for each and each for all!” This is Hyperion’s social ideal when he enters the revolutionary struggle for the liberation of Greece from the Turkish yoke. It is the dream of a revolutionary war for national liberation which is supposed to become also the war of liberation for allmankind: almost what the radical dreamers of the great revolution itself-Anacharsis Cloots, forexample-hoped from the wars of the French Republic. Hyperion says: “No one must recognizeby its flag alone our people to come; it is necessary that all be rejuvenated, that all be radically different, that joy be filled with seriousness and all work be gay! Nothing, not even the leastsignificant, the most commonplace without spirit and the gods! Love, hate, and every sound weutter must astonish the vulgar world, and not once are we to be reminded, even for a moment,of the insipid past!”Hölderlin thus takes no notice of the limitations and contradictions of the bourgeois revolution.