FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
environmental catastrophe, the principal force uniting heterogeneous and geographicallydispersed radical environmental and animal-rights activists is a willingness to engage inillegal, and often violent, activities in what they perceive to be a defensive struggle againstthe destructive and exploitative nature of profit-driven society. (U//FOUO) A number of extreme environmental and animal-rights organizations operate in the UnitedStates. Among those, the following are known to be or suspected of being involved in activitiescommonly associated with ecoterrorism:
Animal Liberation Front (ALF)
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC)
Animal Rights Militia
Band of Mercy
Animal Liberation Brigade
Vegan Dumpster Militia
Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
Direct Action Front (U//FOUO) ALF and its sister organization ELF are considered to be the most active, the mostdangerous, and the largest domestic terrorist groups in the United States.
Therefore, thisDynamic Threat Assessment (DTA) largely focuses on what is known about these twoorganizations and addresses all other individuals and/or groups involved in ecoterrorism onlywhen pertinent. Moreover, this DTA focuses primarily on ecoterrorist activities in the UnitedStates. (U//FOUO) ALF, created in England in 1976 as an outgrowth of mainstreamenvironmentalist organizations such as Greenpeace and the SeaShepherds Conservation Society, is predominantly concerned withanimal-rights issues.
The organization migrated to the United Statesin the 1980s and is active in more than twenty countries.
In 2001, ALF’s strength in the U.S. was estimated at approximately onehundred hard-core members.
(U//FOUO)ELF was founded in the early 1990s in England and like ALF latermigrated to the United States. Also like ALF, ELF emerged as aderivative of another environmentalist organization, Earth First!(EF), which had abandoned its illegal and violent activities by 1992and become more mainstream. The first known ELF activity occurredin 1996 when members set fire to a United States Forest Servicetruck in Oregon.
The group has since perpetrated major attacksacross the United States. (U//FOUO)
One of thenumerous logosused by ALF
Original ELF logoby Awest, SantaCruz, CA.