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Bio I Chapter 1 Themes of Life Final Final (3)

Bio I Chapter 1 Themes of Life Final Final (3)

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10/05/2009

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Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
Introductory Biology IChapter 1 : Exploring Life1. Question: What is biology?
Answer: The word
biology
means, "the science of life", from the Greek 
bios,
 
life
, and
logos,
word 
or 
knowledge.
Therefore, Biology is the science of Living Things. That is why Biology issometimes known as Life Science.
2. Question: what is evolution?
Answer:
Evolution
is the process of change in all forms of life over generations, andevolutionary biology is the study of how evolution occurs. An organism inherits features (called
traits
) from its parents through genes. Changes (called mutations) in these genes can produce anew trait in the offspring of an organism. In biology,
evolution
is the process of change in theinherited traits of a population of organisms from one generation to the next.
3. Question: What is a living thing?
Answer: All living things are composed of 
matter structured in an orderly way
where simplemolecules are ordered together into much larger macromolecules.An easy way to remember this is the acronym GRIMNER CAll organisms; -
G
row,
espire,
I
nteract,
M
ove, Need
N
utrients,
E
xcrete (Waste),
eproduce,
C
ells (Made of)
4. Question: What are some characteristics of living things?
Answer:
Living things are
sensitive,
meaning they are able to
respond to stimuli.
Living things are able to
grow
,
develop
, and
reproduce
.
All known living things use the
hereditary molecule,
DNA.
Internal functions are coordinated and
regulated
so that the internal environment of aliving thing is relatively constant. This is referred to as homeostasis
.4. Question: Define the levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere.
a.Living things are organized in the microscopic level from atoms up to cells. b.Atoms are arranged into molecules
c.
Molecules into macromoleculesd.Macromolecules make up organellese.Organelles work together to form cells.f.Beyond this, cells are organized in higher levels to form entire multicellular organisms.g.Cells together form tissuesh.Tissues make up organsi.Organs are part of organ systems
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
 
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
 j.Organ Systems work together to form an entire organism. Beyond this, organisms form populations Populations make up parts of an ecosystem.
k.
All of the earth's ecosystems together form the diverse environment that is the earth.
5. Question: provide an example for each level of biological organization from molecules tothe biosphere
Answer:a.Sub-atomic particles like neutrons and protons make up atoms of elements, like hydrogen b.Hydrogen atoms make up molecules of the phospholipid membrane of mitochondriac.Mitochondria are present in large quantities in cardiac muscle cellsd.Cardiac muscle tissue is made from cardiac muscle cellse.Cardiac tissue makes up the human heart, an organf.The human heart is part of the circulatory system, a key organ system in the human bodyg.The circulatory system is one of many that makes up the human body
6. Question: What are emergent properties?
Answer: An emergent property is a property which a collection or complex system has, butwhich the individual members do not have. It's the property where living things become moreand more complex as they go from the cellular level (cardiac cells) to the organ system level(circulatory system).Emergent properties are based on the concept that "the whole is greater than the composition of its parts." For example, the heart is made of cardiac cells, but if we were to just have heart cells,they won't do anything. However, if we have the whole heart, it will perform the function of  pumping blood.
7. Question: Define reductionism.
Answer:
Reductionism
tries to understand the nature of complex things by reducing them to theinteractions between their different parts. For example, in the sciences, most aspects of chemistryare based on physics, and similarly many aspects of microbiology are based on chemistry. This isreductionism.
8. Question: What are the limitations of Reductionism in the study of biology?
Answer: Emergent properties expose the limitations of Reductionism. For example, memory andconsciousness can be emergent properties of the brain. However, when a person dies, their consciousness and memory are extinguished. Their brain is intact; Reductionism cannot explainthis phenomenon.
9. Question: What is systems biology?
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
 
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009
Answer: S
ystems biology
is a biology-based inter-disciplinary study field that focuses on thesystematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective(integration) instead of Reductionism, to study these complex interactions.
9. Question: What is Science?
Answer: Science is a
methodology
for 
learning about the world
. It involves the
application of knowledge
.
10. Question: What is the Scientific Method?
Answer: The scientific method is not a step by step, linear process. It is an intuitive process, amethodology for learning about the world through the application of knowledge. Scientists must be able to have an "imaginative preconception" of what the truth is.Scientists will often observe and then hypothesize the reason why a phenomenon occurred. Theyuse all of their knowledge and a bit of imagination, all in an attempt to uncover something thatmight be true.Therefore, the scientific method deals with
systematic investigation
,
reproducible results
, theformation and testing of 
hypotheses
, and
reasoning.11. Question: What process does the scientific method follow?
Answer: Scientists first make observations that raise a particular question. In order to explain theobserved phenomenon, they develop a number of possible explanations, or hypotheses. This isthe inductive part of science, observing and constructing plausible arguments for why an eventoccurred. Experiments are then used to eliminate one of more of the possible hypotheses untilone hypothesis remains. Using deduction, scientists use the principles of their hypothesis tomake predictions, and then test to make sure that their predictions are confirmed. After manytrials (repeatability) and all predictions have been confirmed, the hypothesis then may become atheory.
12. Question: Define Observation
Answer:
 
Observation refers to Quantitative and qualitative measurements of the world.
13. Question: Define Inference
Answer: Inference is the step of deriving new knowledge based upon old knowledge.
14. Define Hypothesis
Answer:
 
A
 
hypothesis
 
is a suggested explanation.
15. What is a Rejected Hypothesis
Answer:
 
A rejected hypothesis is an explanation that has been ruled out through experimentation.
Copyright Crush That Test, LLC. 2009

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