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# Fox-CD

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04/27/2015

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3-7FLUIDS IN RIGID-BODY MOTION
S-1
3-7FLUIDS IN RIGID-BODY MOTION
We are almost ready to begin studying ﬂuids in motion (starting in Chapter 4),butﬁrst there is one category of ﬂuid motion that can be studied using ﬂuid statics ideas:rigid-body motion. As the name implies,this is motion in which the entire ﬂuidmoves as if it were a rigid bodyindividual ﬂuid particles,although they may be inmotion,are not deforming. This means that there are no shear stresses,as in the caseof a static ﬂuid.What kind of ﬂuid ﬂow has rigid-body motion? You recall from kinematics thatrigid-body motion can be broken down into pure translation and pure rotation. Fortranslation the simplest motion is constant velocity,which can always be converted toa ﬂuid statics problem by a shift of coordinates. The other simple translational motionwe can have is constant acceleration,which we will consider here (Example Problem3.9). In addition,we will consider motion consisting of pure constant rotation (Exam-ple Problem 3.10). As in the case of the static ﬂuid,we may apply Newton’s secondlaw of motion to determine the pressure ﬁeld that results from a speciﬁed rigid-bodymotion.In Section 3-1 we derived an expression for the forces due to pressure and grav-ity acting on a ﬂuid particle of volume
.
We obtainedor(3.2)Newton’s second law was writtenSubstituting from Eq. 3.2,we obtain(3.16)If the accelerationis constant,we can combine it with and obtain an effective acceleration of gravity,,so that Eq. 3.16 has the same form as our basic equation for pressure distribution in a static ﬂuid,Eq. 3.3. This means that wecan use the results of previous sections of this chapter as long as we useinplace of .For example,for a liquid undergoing constant acceleration the pressure increases with depth in the direction of ,and the rate of increase of pressure willbe givenby

g
eff
,where
g
eff
is the magnitude of.Lines of constant pressure willbe perpendicular to the direction of. The physical signiﬁcance of each term inthis equation is as follows:
+=×
net pressure forceper unit volumeat a pointbody force perunit volumeat a pointmass per unit volumeacceleration of fluid particle
+ =
pga


r r

r
g
eff
r
g
eff
g
eff
r
g
r
g
eff
r r r
gga
eff
=
r
g
r
a
+ =
pga

r r
rr rrr
= = =

dV dF dV
or
dF dV  pg
rr
= +

dFpgd
rr
= −∇ +
()


S-2
CHAPTER 3/FLUID STATICS
This vector equation consists of three component equations that must be satisﬁedindividually. In rectangular coordinates the component equations areComponent equations for other coordinate systems can be written using the appropriateexpression for . In cylindrical coordinates the vector operator,
∇
,is given by(3.18)whereandare unit vectors in the
and

directions,respectively. Thus(3.19)
EXAMPLE 3.9Liquid in Rigid-Body Motion with Linear Acceleration
As a result of a promotion,you are transferred from your present location. You musttransport a ﬁsh tank in the back of your minivan. The tank is 12 in.
24 in.
12 in.How much water can you leave in the tank and still be reasonably sure that it will notspill over during the trip?
=  +  +
pe pe p p z
ˆˆˆ


1ˆ
e

ˆ
e
=  +  +
ˆˆˆ
ee z


1
p
(3.17)
∂ + = ∂ + = ∂ + =
p x ga p ygay p zgaz
x yy zz
  
directiondirectiondirection
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 3.9
GIVEN:
Fish tank 12 in.
24 in.
12 in. partially ﬁlled with water to be transported in an automobile.
FIND:
Allowable depth of water for reasonable assurance that it will not spill during the trip.
SOLUTION:
The ﬁrst step in the solution is to formulate the problem by translating the general problem into a morespeciﬁc one.We recognize that there will be motion of the water surface as a result of the car’s traveling overbumps in the road,going around corners,etc. However,we shall assume that the main effect on the watersurface is due to linear accelerations (and decelerations) of the car; we shall neglect sloshing.Thus we have reduced the problem to one of determining the effect of a linear acceleration on thefree surface. We have not yet decided on the orientation of the tank relative to the direction of motion.Choosing the
x
coordinate in the direction of motion,should we align the tank with the long side parallel,or perpendicular,to the direction of motion?If there will be no relative motion in the water,we must assume we are dealing with a constant accel-eration,
a
x
. What is the shape of the free surface under these conditions?Let us restate the problem to answer the original questions by idealizing the physical situation to ob-tain an approximate solution.
GIVEN:
Tank partially ﬁlled with water (to depth
) subject to constant linear acceleration,
a
x
. Tank heightis 12 in.; length parallel to direction of motion is
b.
Width perpendicular to direction of motion is
c
.