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Published by mukiller
Useful fluid mechanics additional chapters
Useful fluid mechanics additional chapters

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Published by: mukiller on Feb 13, 2014
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04/27/2015

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3-7FLUIDS IN RIGID-BODY MOTION
S-1
3-7FLUIDS IN RIGID-BODY MOTION
We are almost ready to begin studying fluids in motion (starting in Chapter 4),butfirst there is one category of fluid motion that can be studied using fluid statics ideas:rigid-body motion. As the name implies,this is motion in which the entire fluidmoves as if it were a rigid bodyindividual fluid particles,although they may be inmotion,are not deforming. This means that there are no shear stresses,as in the caseof a static fluid.What kind of fluid flow has rigid-body motion? You recall from kinematics thatrigid-body motion can be broken down into pure translation and pure rotation. Fortranslation the simplest motion is constant velocity,which can always be converted toa fluid statics problem by a shift of coordinates. The other simple translational motionwe can have is constant acceleration,which we will consider here (Example Problem3.9). In addition,we will consider motion consisting of pure constant rotation (Exam-ple Problem 3.10). As in the case of the static fluid,we may apply Newton’s secondlaw of motion to determine the pressure field that results from a specified rigid-bodymotion.In Section 3-1 we derived an expression for the forces due to pressure and grav-ity acting on a fluid particle of volume
.
We obtainedor(3.2)Newton’s second law was writtenSubstituting from Eq. 3.2,we obtain(3.16)If the accelerationis constant,we can combine it with and obtain an effective acceleration of gravity,,so that Eq. 3.16 has the same form as our basic equation for pressure distribution in a static fluid,Eq. 3.3. This means that wecan use the results of previous sections of this chapter as long as we useinplace of .For example,for a liquid undergoing constant acceleration the pressure increases with depth in the direction of ,and the rate of increase of pressure willbe givenby
 
g
eff 
,where
g
eff 
is the magnitude of.Lines of constant pressure willbe perpendicular to the direction of. The physical significance of each term inthis equation is as follows:
+=×
net pressure forceper unit volumeat a pointbody force perunit volumeat a pointmass per unit volumeacceleration of fluid particle
+ =
 pga
 
 
r r
 
r
g
eff 
r
g
eff 
g
eff 
r
g
r
g
eff 
r r r
gga
eff 
 =
r
g
r
a
+ =
 pga
 
r r
dFadmaa
rr rrr
= = =
 
dV dF dV 
or
dF dV  pg
rr
= +
  
dFpgd
rr
= −∇ +
()
 
 
S-2
CHAPTER 3/FLUID STATICS
This vector equation consists of three component equations that must be satisfiedindividually. In rectangular coordinates the component equations areComponent equations for other coordinate systems can be written using the appropriateexpression for . In cylindrical coordinates the vector operator,
 ∇
,is given by(3.18)whereandare unit vectors in the
and
 
directions,respectively. Thus(3.19)
EXAMPLE 3.9Liquid in Rigid-Body Motion with Linear Acceleration
As a result of a promotion,you are transferred from your present location. You musttransport a fish tank in the back of your minivan. The tank is 12 in.
24 in.
12 in.How much water can you leave in the tank and still be reasonably sure that it will notspill over during the trip?
=  +  + 
 pe pe p p z
ˆˆˆ
 
 
1ˆ
e
 
ˆ
e
=  +  + 
ˆˆˆ
ee z
  
 
1
 p
(3.17)
 ∂ + = ∂ + = ∂ + =
 p x ga p ygay p zgaz
 x yy zz
   
 directiondirectiondirection
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 3.9
GIVEN:
Fish tank 12 in.
24 in.
12 in. partially filled with water to be transported in an automobile.
FIND:
Allowable depth of water for reasonable assurance that it will not spill during the trip.
SOLUTION:
The first step in the solution is to formulate the problem by translating the general problem into a morespecific one.We recognize that there will be motion of the water surface as a result of the car’s traveling overbumps in the road,going around corners,etc. However,we shall assume that the main effect on the watersurface is due to linear accelerations (and decelerations) of the car; we shall neglect sloshing.Thus we have reduced the problem to one of determining the effect of a linear acceleration on thefree surface. We have not yet decided on the orientation of the tank relative to the direction of motion.Choosing the
 x 
coordinate in the direction of motion,should we align the tank with the long side parallel,or perpendicular,to the direction of motion?If there will be no relative motion in the water,we must assume we are dealing with a constant accel-eration,
a
 x 
. What is the shape of the free surface under these conditions?Let us restate the problem to answer the original questions by idealizing the physical situation to ob-tain an approximate solution.
GIVEN:
Tank partially filled with water (to depth
) subject to constant linear acceleration,
a
 x 
. Tank heightis 12 in.; length parallel to direction of motion is
b.
Width perpendicular to direction of motion is
c
.

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