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Elektricitet i Magnetizam

Elektricitet i Magnetizam

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Published by Smail Hondo

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Published by: Smail Hondo on Feb 13, 2014
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07/06/2014

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FAKULTET STROJARSTVA I BRODOGRADNJE SVEU
Č
ILIŠTA U ZAGREBU
 Essert, Grilec, Žili
ć
:
ELEKTRICITET i MAGNETIZAM
- fizikalne osnove -
Ver. 1.0 – priprava (nije za objavljivanje) Zagreb, 2006.
 
SADRŽAJ
1.
 
ELEKTROSTATIKA ....................................................................................... 9
 
1.1.
 
Struktura materije...............................................................................................9
 
1.1.1.
 
Elementarni naboj ...................................................................................................11
 
1.1.2.
 
Elektri
č
na svojstva tvari..................................................................................12
 
1.2.
 
Elektri
č
no polje naboja.....................................................................................13
 
1.2.1.
 
Polarizacija i influencija...................................................................................16
 
1.2.2.
 
Gusto
ć
a elektri
č
nog toka.................................................................................18
 
1.2.3.
 
Homogeno elektri
č
no polje..............................................................................18
 
1.2.4.
 
Coulombov zakon.................................................................................................19
 
1.3.
 
Elektri
č
ni potencijal..........................................................................................19
 
1.4.
 
Elektri
č
ni kapacitet...........................................................................................21
 
1.5.
 
Kondenzator......................................................................................................22
 
1.5.1.
 
Spojevi kondenzatora....................................................................................... 23
 
1.5.2.
 
Serijski spoj....................................................................................................... 24
 
1.5.3.
 
Paralelni spoj...................................................................................................... 25
 
1.5.4.
 
Mješoviti spoj..................................................................................................... 26
 
1.5.5.
 
Energija nabijenog kondenzatora.................................................................. 27
 
1.5.6.
 
Prirodni kondenzator........................................................................................ 29
 
1.6.
 
Appleti................................................................................................................30
 
1.6.1.
 
Elektri
č
no polje naboja ................................................................................... 30
 
1.6.2.
 
Test naboj u elektri
č
nom polju.......................................................................31
 
1.6.3.
 
Elektroskop ........................................................................................................ 32
 
1.6.4.
 
Kapacitet plo
č
astog kondenzatora................................................................ 32
 
1.6.5.
 
Prirodni kondenzator........................................................................................ 33
 
1.7.
 
Zadaci.................................................................................................................34 
2.
 
ISTOSMJERNA STRUJA............................................................................. 37
 
2.1.
 
Elektri
č
ni napon................................................................................................37
 
2.2.
 
Elektri
č
ni izvori.................................................................................................38
 
2.3.
 
Elektri
č
na struja................................................................................................40
 
2.4.
 
Elektri
č
ni otpor .................................................................................................40
 
2.4.1.
 
Promjena otpora s temperaturom..................................................................41
 
2.5.
 
Ohm-ov zakon...................................................................................................43
 
2.6.
 
Kirchhoff-ovi zakoni ........................................................................................44
 
2.6.1.
 
I. Kirchhoff-ov zakon....................................................................................... 45
 
2.6.2.
 
II. Kirchhoff-ov zakon .................................................................................... 46
 
2.7.
 
Spajanje elektri
č
nog otpora u strujnom krugu.............................................47
 
2.7.1.
 
Serijski spoj otpora ......................................................................................... 47
 
2.7.2.
 
Paralelni spoj otpora......................................................................................... 48
 
2.8.
 
Elektri
č
na struja u ioniziranom plinu............................................................50
 
2.9.
 
Elektrokemijske pojave....................................................................................52
 
2.9.1.
 
Faraday-evi zakoni elektrolize....................................................................... 52
 
2.9.2.
 
Primarni elementi.............................................................................................. 53
 
2.9.3.
 
Sekundarni elementi......................................................................................... 55
 

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