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Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection



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Published by: MohammedSaadaniHassani on Oct 06, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Transformer ProtectionTransformer Protection
The development of modern power systemsThe development of modern power systemshas been reflected in the advances inhas been reflected in the advances intransformer design. This has result in a widetransformer design. This has result in a widerange of transformers with sizes ranging from arange of transformers with sizes ranging from afewfewkVAkVAto several hundred MVA being availableto several hundred MVA being availablefor use in a widefor use in a widevarityvarityof applications.of applications.The considerations for a transformer protectionThe considerations for a transformer protectionpackage vary with the application andpackage vary with the application andimportance of the transformers.importance of the transformers.
Small distribution transformers can beSmall distribution transformers can beprotected satisfactorily, from both technical andprotected satisfactorily, from both technical andeconomic considerations, by thee use of fuse or economic considerations, by thee use of fuse or overcurrentovercurrentrelays. This result in timerelays. This result in time--delayeddelayedprotection.protection.However, timeHowever, time--delayed fault clearance isdelayed fault clearance isunacceptable on larger power transformers, dueunacceptable on larger power transformers, dueto system operation/stability and cost.to system operation/stability and cost.
Transformer faults are generally clasTransformer faults are generally classsified in toified in tofive categories:five categories:
Winding and terminal faultsWinding and terminal faultsCore faultsCore faultsTank and transformer accessory faultsTank and transformer accessory faultsOnOn--load tap changer faultsload tap changer faultsAbnormal operation conditionsAbnormal operation conditionsSustained or Sustained or unclearedunclearedexternal faultsexternal faults
Winding andterminalCoreTank andaccessoriesOLTC
Transformer faultsTransformer faults
Winding faultWinding faultA fault on transformer winding is controlled inA fault on transformer winding is controlled inmagnitude by the following factor:magnitude by the following factor:
Source impedanceSource impedanceNeutralNeutralearthingearthingimpedanceimpedanceTransformer leakage reactanceTransformer leakage reactanceFault voltageFault voltageWinding connectionWinding connection
Transformer faultsTransformer faults
Star Star --Connected Winding with NeutralConnected Winding with NeutralPoint Earthed through an impedancePoint Earthed through an impedance
The winding earth fault current depends onthe earthingimpedance value and is alsoproportional to the distance of the fault fromneutral point, since the fault voltage will bedirectly proportional to this distance.

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