Small distribution transformers can beSmall distribution transformers can beprotected satisfactorily, from both technical andprotected satisfactorily, from both technical andeconomic considerations, by thee use of fuse or economic considerations, by thee use of fuse or overcurrentovercurrentrelays. This result in timerelays. This result in time--delayeddelayedprotection.protection.However, timeHowever, time--delayed fault clearance isdelayed fault clearance isunacceptable on larger power transformers, dueunacceptable on larger power transformers, dueto system operation/stability and cost.to system operation/stability and cost.
Transformer faults are generally clasTransformer faults are generally classsified in toified in tofive categories:five categories:
Winding and terminal faultsWinding and terminal faultsCore faultsCore faultsTank and transformer accessory faultsTank and transformer accessory faultsOnOn--load tap changer faultsload tap changer faultsAbnormal operation conditionsAbnormal operation conditionsSustained or Sustained or unclearedunclearedexternal faultsexternal faults
Winding andterminalCoreTank andaccessoriesOLTC