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Bus Bar Design and Protection

Bus Bar Design and Protection

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Published by: MohammedSaadaniHassani on Oct 06, 2009
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07/19/2013

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BUS DESIGN
TYPICAL BUS ARRANGEMENTS
The bus arrangements evaluated in this paper are:-Single breaker - single bus-Double bus with bus tie-Double bus - single breaker-Double bus - double breaker-Ring bus-Breaker-and-a-half bus-Main and transfer bus-No bus - The Tapped Line
Single breaker - Single bus
This is the most basic and simple bus arrangement. The bus can readily be protectedby a bus differential relay utilizing line-side CTs on all breakers. It is an economicalinstallation utilizing a minimum number of breakers and no breaker bypass facilities.Maintenance on breaker or relays requires the removal of the line associated with thebreaker. Single breaker/single bus arrangements are primarily used to service industrialapplications where lines 1 and 2 terminate at a remote bus and lines 3 and 4 terminateat a remote bus. Thus the removal of line 1 would not disrupt service to the remote bussupplied by lines 1 and 2. Provisions must be made to insure that each line can ad-equately carry the total load.
Figure B1: Single Breaker, single bus
 
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Double bus with bus tie
This bus arrangement is a logical extension of the single breaker/single bus conceptwith provisions to isolate two bus sections. The installation of a bus tie breaker T cre-ates two bus sections, A and B. Under these conditions a bus fault will de-energize twoline sections while retaining service to the remaining two line sections. This type of installation is used where two lines terminate at one bus. For example, line 1 and line 3would terminate at a common bus and line 2 and line 4 would terminate at a commonbus. Thus the loss of either bus section would not interrupt service to the remote busterminals. However, a circuit must be removed for breaker or relay maintenance and afailure in breaker T will de-energize the entire station.
Figure B2: Double bus with bus tie
Double bus - Single breaker
Fig. B3 depicts the normal setup of a double bus/single breaker scheme. Breakers F1and F2 are served from bus 1 and employ a bus differential arrangement from the line-side CTs of the feeder breakers and the bus 2 side CTs of breaker T. A similar busdifferential arrangement is employed around breakers F3, F4, and T. This bus arrange-ment differs from the double bus with bus tie because it utilizes the tie breaker as aspare breaker when maintenance is to be done on any feeder breaker. A bus fault willde-energize two circuits. Therefore, this scheme is usually used where two lines (ex-ample - F1 and F3) terminate to a common bus. F2 and F4 would also terminate on acommon bus.
 
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Figure B3: Double bus, single breaker (Normal)
Fig. B4 depicts breaker F1 off line and out for maintenance. Breaker T can be utilizedas a spare breaker where bus 1 becomes an extension of line 1. To accomplish this, F2must be transferred to bus 2 and the differential scheme for bus 2 must accommodatebreaker F2. It can be seen that the switching arrangements can be complicated andsubject to misoperation. Under normal conditions a fault in the tie breaker T will resultin a complete station outage.
Figure B4: Double bus, single breaker (F1 off line)

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