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Ethical Advice 212

Ethical Advice 212

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Ethical Advice from Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi


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Ethical Advice from Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi


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Published by: awaiting on Feb 14, 2008
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In the name of All°h, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful
Topic of Discussion:Topic of Discussion:Topic of Discussion:Topic of Discussion: TheTheTheThe (Various)(Various)(Various)(Various) Levels of Perfection in ´m°n (True Faith)Levels of Perfection in ´m°n (True Faith)Levels of Perfection in ´m°n (True Faith)Levels of Perfection in ´m°n (True Faith)Øad¢th #Øad¢th #Øad¢th #Øad¢th #11111111[Discussion #[ Discussion #[Discussion #[ Discussion #11112222]]]]
Lectures on Akhl°q given by His EminenceAyatull°h al-`U®m° al-Ø°jj ash-Shaykh N°•ir Mak°rim ash-Sh¢r°z¢ (may All°h protect him)Translated by Saleem Bhimji – www.al-mubin.org – al-mubin@al-mubin.org
Topic: The (Various) Levels ofPerfection in Iman (True Faith)
Text of the Øad¢th:
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Translation of Øad¢th:Translation of Øad¢th:Translation of Øad¢th:Translation of Øad¢th:
It has been narrated form N°fi` from Ibn `Umar that he said that the Messenger of All°h(blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) said,
“A servant’s faith in All°h will never become complete until he possesses five traits: complete reliance (al-Tawakkul) upon All°h, complete dependence (al-Tafw¢§) upon All°h (what He has decreed), complete submission (al-Tasl¢m) to all of the commandments of All°h, complete contentment (al-Ri§a) upon what All°h has decreed and complete patience (al-Æabr) due to the calamities that All°h brings forth since verily that person who loves for the sake of All°h and hates for the sake of All°h and gives (to others) for the (sake of) All°h and holds back (giving to others) for the (sake of) All°h is one whose faith is complete.” 
Commentary of Øad¢th:
In this Øad¢th, the Messenger of All°h (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has elucidated uponthe various levels (that one must traverse) in order to achieve perfection in ones’ faith.Some of the scholars of the discipline of Akhl°q (ethics and morality) have also mentioned roughly the samepoints as the stages that one must traverse on the path of 
Sa¢r wa Sul£k 
(the path that one who is trying toget spiritually close to All°h, Glory and Greatness be to Him).1.[
*81:!= 
]:The first stage is to have complete reliance (upon All°h, Glory and Greatness be to Him). Inreality, the true believer must be one who says,
“Since it is through the knowledge, powerand mercy o All°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him) that I havebeen granted true faith(´m°n)and knowledge, I will tak
Bi¶°r al-Anw°r, Volume 74, Page 177
Him alone as the One I rely upon.” 
]:The second stage is that of complete dependence upon All°h(Glory and Greatness be toHim). In the previous stage it is said that the true believer is walking on the path towards All°h (Glory andGreatness be to Him) which he himself has chosen. However at this stage, the true believer – in reality –says to All°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him),
“O’ All°h! You know better than I and thus, I leave everything in Your hands.” 
The Difference between al-Tawakkul and al-Tafw¢§:
At the stage of al-Tawakkul, a person gives precedence to everything that he feels is for his own personal benefit and thus he sees all the limits and restrictions for his own benefit, however in al-Tafwi§h,the personknows that he has personal benefits, however he does not see the limits – rather -he leaves them all up toAll°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him) (to fulfill). Why does he do so? He does this because he hascomplete reliance upon All°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him).3.[
]:This stage is even higher than the previously mentioned level. At this stage,personal benefit has no meaning to the person. At the stage of Al-Tawakkul, a person’s personal wishes and desireswere the topic of discussion, however on the level of al-Tasl¢m, a person does not even consider his ownpersonal desires.Question:Question:Question:Question: If it is truly as you say (that one who is at the level of al-Tasl¢m does not even make known hispersonal needs and desires) then there is no meaning to Du`° and supplication, right?Answer:Answer:Answer:Answer: The meaning of al-Tasl¢m is not that we do not ask our needs or desires from All°h (Glory andGreatness be to Him) and that we do not call upon Him, rather, it means that if we have asked Him forsomething and our prayers have not been answered (in this world), then we must (still) submit to Him.4.[
B:% 
]:The stage of al-Ri§° is greater than the previously mentioned stage. It can be said that at thelevel of al-Tasl¢m, a person still had personal wants and desires however he has still submittedhis presenceand essence and gives up his wants (to All°h). However at the stage of al-Ri§° -even within a person’s ownsoul – there is no resistance in relation to his wishes and desires and this is the difference between al-Tasl¢mand al-Ri§°.These levels mentioned form the four stages of the spiritual travel towards All°h (Glory and Greatness be toHim) in the hopes of attaining closeness to Him. It is very easy to explain these levels through wordshowever how far is the distance of travel between each of these!Sometimes, these levels are also known as [
OS F  
complete annihilation in the presence of All°h 
.Although it should be kept in mind that the word [
]has two meanings of which the first is the known andrational interpretation which is reaching to the level of al-Ri§°. In this stage, a person forgets all of his ownpersonal wishes and desires while in the spiritual presence of the Pure Essence of his Lord and truly this isthe correct meaning of the phrase [
S FO 
]which is also the agreed upon meaning in the Islamic legislationsand our intelligence.Of course this in no way contradicts the philosophy of Du`° (supplication) and requesting our needs fromAll°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him). Thus, the person who has reached to this final stage of perfection of his ´m°n (true faith) – meaning the stage of al-Ri§° - is still in need of Du`° and supplicating to All°h(Gloryand Greatness be to Him).

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