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Bash Ref

Bash Ref

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Bash Reference Manual
Reference Documentation for BashEdition 3.2, for
Bash
Version 3.2.September 2006
Chet Ramey, Case Western Reserve UniversityBrian Fox, Free Software Foundation
 
This text is a brief description of the features that are present in the Bash shell (version3.2, 28 September 2006).This is Edition 3.2, last updated 28 September 2006, of 
The GNU Bash Reference Manual 
,for
Bash
, Version 3.2.Copyrightc
1988-2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided thecopyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document underthe terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any laterversion published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections,with the Front-Cover texts being “A GNU Manual,” and with the Back-CoverTexts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled“GNU Free Documentation License.”(a) The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is: “You have freedom to copy and modifythis GNU Manual, like GNU software. Copies published by the Free SoftwareFoundation raise funds for GNU development.”Published by the Free Software Foundation59 Temple Place, Suite 330,Boston, MA 02111-1307USA
 
i
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1.1 What is Bash?
..........................................
11.2 What is a shell?
.........................................
1
2 Definitions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33 Basic Shell Features
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
3.1 Shell Syntax
............................................
53.1.1 Shell Operation
.................................
53.1.2 Quoting
........................................
53.1.2.1 Escape Character
......................
63.1.2.2 Single Quotes
..........................
63.1.2.3 Double Quotes
.........................
63.1.2.4 ANSI-C Quoting
.......................
63.1.2.5 Locale-Specific Translation
..............
73.1.3 Comments
.....................................
73.2 Shell Commands
........................................
73.2.1 Simple Commands
..............................
83.2.2 Pipelines
.......................................
83.2.3 Lists of Commands
.............................
83.2.4 Compound Commands
..........................
93.2.4.1 Looping Constructs
....................
93.2.4.2 Conditional Constructs
................
103.2.4.3 Grouping Commands
..................
133.3 Shell Functions
.........................................
133.4 Shell Parameters
.......................................
153.4.1 Positional Parameters
..........................
153.4.2 Special Parameters
............................
163.5 Shell Expansions
.......................................
173.5.1 Brace Expansion
..............................
173.5.2 Tilde Expansion
...............................
183.5.3 Shell Parameter Expansion
.....................
193.5.4 Command Substitution
........................
213.5.5 Arithmetic Expansion
..........................
223.5.6 Process Substitution
...........................
223.5.7 Word Splitting
................................
223.5.8 Filename Expansion
...........................
233.5.8.1 Pattern Matching
.....................
233.5.9 Quote Removal
................................
243.6 Redirections
...........................................
253.6.1 Redirecting Input
..............................
263.6.2 Redirecting Output
............................
26

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