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High Voltage Reference Manual

High Voltage Reference Manual

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Published by Jan Posvic
High Voltage Reference Manual. FAQs and Applications. Spellman.
High Voltage Reference Manual. FAQs and Applications. Spellman.

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Published by: Jan Posvic on Oct 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/11/2014

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HIGHVOLTAGEREFERENCEMANUAL
7/09 REV.2
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
T E C H N I C A L R E S O U R C E S M A N U A L
SECTION 1
Frequently Asked Questions 
A
RC
/S
HORT
C
IRCUIT
1I
NTERFACING
1S
AFETY
2T
ECHNOLOGY
/T
ERMINOLOGY
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SAGE
/A
PPLICATION
6
SECTION 2
Application Notes 
AN-01W
HAT DO YOU MEAN
;
THE OUTPUTIS
GROUND REFERENCED
”? 8AN-02“G
ROUND IS GROUND
”,
RIGHT
?W
HAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
8AN-03W
HEN OVER SPECIFYING A POWERSUPPLY CAN BE A BAD THING
8AN-04W
HY SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIOS AREIMPORTANT IN PROGRAMMING POWER SUPPLIES
9AN-05HVPS
OUTPUT FALL AND DISCHARGETIMES EXPLAINED
9AN-06“J
UST JUMPER THE EXTERNAL INTERLOCK
”?
WHY YOU REALLY SHOULDN
ʼ
T
10AN-07W
HAT
ʼ
S THE VOLTAGE RATING OF
RG8-U
COAXIAL CABLE
? 11AN-08H
OW DO
I
CHANGE THE POLARITYOF THE POWER SUPPLY
? 11
SECTION 3
Articles 
IEEE S
TD
510-1983 IEEE R
ECOMMENDED
P
RACTICES FOR
S
AFETY IN
H
IGH
V
OLTAGE AND
H
IGH
P
OWER
T
ESTING
12S
PECIFYING
H
IGH
V
OLTAGE
P
OWER
S
UPPLIES
14H
IGH
V
OLTAGE
P
OWER
S
UPPLIES FOR
A
NALYTICAL
I
NSTRUMENTATION
18H
IGH
V
OLTAGE
P
OWER
S
UPPLIES FOR
E
LECTROSTATIC
A
PPLICATIONS
22S
TANDARD
T
EST
P
ROCEDURES FOR
H
IGH
V
OLTAGE
P
OWER
S
UPPLIES
26C
OMPARATIVE
T
ESTING OF
S
HIELD
T
ERMINATIONS OF
HV C
ABLES
37D
ESIGN AND
T
ESTING OF A
H
IGH
-P
OWER
P
ULSED
L
OAD
42A
CCURATE
M
EASUREMENT OF
O
N
-S
TATE
L
OSSES OF
P
OWER
S
EMICONDUCTORS
47H
IGHLY
E
FFICIENT
S
WITCH
-M
ODE
100
K
V, 100
K
WP
OWER
S
UPPLY FOR
ESPA
PPLICATIONS
52H
IGH
P
OWER
, H
IGH
E
FFICIENCY
, L
OW
C
OST
C
APACITOR
C
HARGER
C
ONCEPT AND
D
EMONSTRATION
58
SECTION 4
Glossary 
64
 
Are your supplies current protected? 
Virtually all of Spellman's supplies (with the exception of afew modular proportional supplies) are "current protected."Current protection is accomplished through the use of aregulating current loop, otherwise known as current mode.The current mode is programmed to a regulating level viathe front panel pot or the remote current programming sig-nal. A current feedback signal is generated inside the sup-ply that drives the current meter (if there is one) and theremote current monitor signal. By comparing the currentfeedback signal to the current program signal, the supplycan limit or regulated the output current to the desiredlevel. Even if a continuous short circuit is placed on theoutput of the supply, the current mode will limit the outputcurrent to the desired preset level.
Why is the short circuit repetition rate of my load set-up important? 
How frequently a power supply is short circuited is animportant parameter to specify when selecting a supplyfor a particular application.As a rule of thumb, most of Spellman's supplies are de-signed to be short circuited at a 1 Hertz maximum repeti-tion rate. This rating is dictated by the stored energy of theoutput section of the supply, and the power handling capa-bility of the internal resistive output limiter that limits thepeak discharge current during short circuiting. Theseresistive limiters (that keep the instantaneous dischargecurrent to a limited level) thermally dissipate the storedenergy of the supply during short circuiting. If a supply isarced at a repetition rate higher than it was designed for,the resistive limiters in time, may become damaged due tooverheating. Brief bursts of intense arcing usually can behandled, as long as the average short circuit rate is main-tained at or below 1 Hertz.Supplies can be modified to enhance their short circuitrepetition rate by reducing their internal capacitanceand/or augmenting the power handling capability of theresistive output limiting assembly. Please contact theSales Department for additional information.
What is the difference between instantaneous short circuit current and continuous short circuit current? 
The output section of a typical high voltage power supplyis capacitive, which causes it to store energy. When ashort circuit is placed on the output of a supply, the energystored in the capacitance of the multiplier is discharged.The only limit to the magnitude of short circuit current isthe resistance in the series with the discharge circuit. AllSpellman supplies have built-in output limiting assembliesthat limit the instantaneous discharge current to a limitedlevel. The instantaneous short circuit current is determinedby the setting of the output voltage divided by the resist-ance that is in series with the discharge path. The amountof time this discharge event is present(and its rate ofdecay) is determined by the amount of capacitance andresistance present in the discharged circuit.When a short circuit is placed upon the output of asupply, there is an instantaneous short circuit current.Once the output capacitance has been discharged, addi-tional output current can only come from the power gener-ating circuitry of the power supply itself. To prevent this,the power supply will sense the rise in output current dueto this short circuit condition and will automatically crossover into current mode to regulate the output current to theprogrammed present level.In summary, the instantaneous short circuit current is apulse of current that discharges the capacitance of thesupply, and the continuous short circuit current is thecurrent limit level set and controlled by the current modeof the power supply.
ARC/SHORT CIRCUITINTERFACING
What kind of high voltage connector do you use on your supplies? 
While most Spellman supplies typically come with one oftwo types of Spellman designed high voltage connector orcable arrangements, many other industry standards(Alden, Lemo,Kings, etc.) or custom cable/connectorscan be provided.Many of our lower power modular supplies are providedwith a "fly wire" output cable. This output arrangement is alength of appropriately rated high voltage wire that is per-manently attached to the unit. This wire may be shieldedor non-shielded, depending on model. Catalog items comewith fixed lengths and non-standard lengths are availablevia special order.Most higher power units, both modular and rack mounted,are provided with a Spellman-designed and fabricated,detachable, high voltage cable/connector assembly, oftenreferred to as a Delrin Connector. Typically a deep wellfemale connector is located on the supply and a modifiedcoaxial polyethylene cable/connector arrangement is pro-vided. The coaxial cable's PVC jacket and braided shield
FREQUENTLYASKED QUESTIONS
T E C H N I C A L R E S O U R C E S
SEC.1
page 1
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