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Street Lighting Control Based on LonWorks Power Line Communication

Street Lighting Control Based on LonWorks Power Line Communication

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Published by asmsystem
milind patil
milind patil

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Published by: asmsystem on Oct 07, 2009
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06/13/2012

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 Abstract 
 — 
Public lighting managers have known that they couldlower the operating costs of their systems if they could costeffectively collect the critical data needed to make better planningdecisions. Lighting engineers have conceived of new designs toimprove public safety and reduce energy consumption only to bestymied by an inability to economically control every luminaire inthe system.
 
This paper describes street lighting control system based onLonWorks[1] power line communication on demand market.
 Keywords
 —LonWorks, Street lighting, PLC
I.
 
T
HE NECESSITY OF STREET LIGHT CONTROL
 treet lighting is used to illuminate the roads we drive on, the pedestrian paths we walk down, and the public areas wherewe gather. It provides us with safe roads, stylish and inviting public areas, and enhanced security in our homes, businessesand city centers. Unfortunately, while traditional publiclighting systems provide significant benefits to all our lives,they do so at significant expense to the community.They’re usually very costly to operate, however, and they usea lot of money that almost 40 percent of a city’s electricityspending.
TABLE
 
IE
STIMATE OF
E
LECTRICITY USE AND ASSOCIATED
CO2
EMISSIONS
 Locationand Number of ResidentsLocation and Number of ResidentsEstimated Number of KWh per Year EstimatedAnnualElectricityCost for StreetlightsEstimatedAnnualCO2Emissionsdue toStreetlights(in tons)U.S.> 68 million > 300 billion> $18 billion> 150millionEuropeanUnion> 90 million > 450 billion> $45.5 billion> 180millionU.K. 7.5 million > 4 billion> $650million> 1.9 millionFrance 8.6 million 5.3 billion$520million583,000LosAngeles(U.S.)220,000 > 100 million> $17million> 60,000Paris(France)170,000 > 80 million> $10.2million> $10.2million
Besides being costly, streetlights contribute to air pollution.The production of electricity needed to power street lightingsystems adds to carbon dioxide emissions (CO2 is the principal“greenhouse gas”) and nuclear dust. Light pollution also has anegative effect on the environment, impacting plants, animals,and people’s sleeping habits. Table 1, provides an estimate of electricity use and the associated CO2 emissions for someareas.The cost and environmental factors described above are pushing cities to find solutions that reduce their streetlightnetwork costs while improving light efficiency and safety. Therising price of electricity is, by itself, responsible for themajority of the increase in streetlight operation budgets. It’snow becoming strategic and compelling for cities to implementsolutions to measure, analyze, and reduce electricity use inorder to reduce energy spending, decrease maintenance costs,challenge their electricity providers, and contribute to thereduction of CO2 emissions, as required by the Kyoto Protocol.II.
 
T
HE
A
RCHITECTURE OF
S
TREET
L
IGHTING
C
ONTROL
 The base architecture of street lighting system is shown in Fig.1. The basic architecture consists of an intelligent ballastcontroller with LonWorks Power Line modem, a segmentcontroller device (scheduling/control/data logging/access), power line routers, and software middle-ware that ties thesystems access devices back to service center applications. So,we recommend a monitored streetlight system based on thefollowing components.
Street Lighting Control based onLonWorks Power Line Communication
SungKwan Cho*, Vijay Dhingra***
Echelon Korea Asia Pacific Ltd., 27F WTC Samsung-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul, Koreascho@echelon.com** Echelon Corporation, 550 Meridian Avenue, San Jose, CA 95126 USAvdhingra@echelon.com
S
Authorized licensed use limited to: Halmstad Hogskola. Downloaded on May 3, 2009 at 03:12 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
396
978-1-4244-1976-0/08/$25.00 ⓒ2008 IEEE.
 
 A.
 
 A Power Line LonWorks node
Power Line LonWorks nodes must be able to measure andsend data such as lamp status, lamp level, accumulated energyconsumption of the streetlight, voltage, current, and cos
φ
(for example, the ratio between active energy power and totalenergy power) over the power line network using theANSI/EIA 709.1
 
 protocol[2].Power line communications bandwidth is a precious resourcefor stable communication. Care must be taken in the design of the ballast control nodes so that they do not saturate thenetwork. For this reason, LONMARK[3] certified nodes can beconfigured to limit their bandwidth utilization. This degree of configurability works well in a commercial building or industrial environment where there are trained integratorsinstalling the system. In the street lighting environment, suchtrained integrators may not be available, and it is desirable toget a trial system installed and running very quickly withminimal installer interaction.The frequency of communications can be set and controlled toeliminate the need for an integrator to configure each node dueto two factors – the ballast control nodes only initiatecommunication on an alarm condition and the primaryfunctions of the system (energy savings and outage detection)are pre-determined. For normal status updates, energyconsumption data, and other values, the ballast control nodeswait to be polled by segment controller. In this way, power line bandwidth is conserved so that the system design is not overlysensitive to the number of nodes on a distribution transformer.While it takes longer to poll more nodes, the informationcoming from the polled communications transactions is nottime critical, so the polling can be done at a low duty cycleleaving plenty of bandwidth available for higher priority taskssuch as prompt alarm condition reporting.
 B.
 
Street lighting segment controller 
Streetlight segment controllers
 
located in the feeder pillar. Thecontroller is the gateway between the central streetlightmonitoring software and the ballast nodes. Thus, streetlightsegment controllers must support standard communicationlayers including TCP/IP over GPRS, ADSL, WiFi, and CDMAand provide a standardized Web service interface(such asXML/SOAP) to receive data, send commands, and configurethe streetlight controller’s services. The controller must providethe following services within an integrated package:(1) Bidirectional communication to the LonWorks node over  power line(2) Historical datalog for several days(3) Astronomical clock to send lamp switch commands atdusk and dawn(4) Scheduler for dimming commands(5) Alarm notification to send messages of critical failuresThe streetlight segment controller must support additional protocols (such as Modbus) to communicate and control other types of devices (such as energy counters, door opening sensors,or heaters) installed in the cabinet.
C.
 
Street Lighting monitoring software
Streetlight monitoring software
 
installed on a central computer in a service center. This software serves as the data aggregator for thousands of streetlight segment controllers. It must offer:(1) Administration tools to make it easy to install andconfigure electronic ballasts, Power Line LonWorks nodes, andstreetlight segment controllers.(2) Data aggregation methods to calculate failure ratio, business indicators, and energy consumption information.(3) Intuitive end-user tools to let maintenance operatorsquickly and easily identify lamp failures, display energyconsumption and other service-level business indicators, andremotely control and command streetlights.The software is a bridge between the streetlights and the city’s(or the streetlight maintenance company’s) existing IT systemand business processes. Information from the streetlightmonitoring software can be leveraged by work-order management applications as well as by energy billingapplications. The software also hides the technical complexityof monitoring streetlights and limits the skills required of endusers and reduces installation costs.With streetlight monitoring software that provides intuitivestreetlight maintenance and business reports through a100-percent secured Web access to end users, streetlightmaintenance companies can give their customers an onlinesubscription to monitoring and business information includingservice-level indicators.III.
 
I
 NSTALLATION
C
ASE
 The architecture described above have been adopted by mostlarge streetlight maintenance companies in Europe and by mostintegrators and cities in Austria, Canada, France, Germany,Ireland, Norway, Spain, and the U.K.Large cities such as Oslo, Norway and Milton Keynes, U.K have reduced the overall costs associated with their streetlightnetwork by almost 50 percent, improve roadway safety, andminimize maintenance costs. The installation in the Ville deQuebec is saving 30 percent on energy use compared to the previous system. [4].
Authorized licensed use limited to: Halmstad Hogskola. Downloaded on May 3, 2009 at 03:12 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
397

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