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02 Physiology is Destiny

02 Physiology is Destiny

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Published by: Alex on Feb 16, 2008
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09/27/2012

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Physiology is Destiny:Early Modern Views of Gender15/01/2008 14:06:00
Discussion regarding the essay on
Isis
called “A Woman Down to Her Bones”
what is the fundamental issue the essay is arguing?
o
 The point of the one sex model
One sex is primary, one is subordinate
o
 Then the issue comes out that there are two sexes and theyare not subordinate to each other.
How does it prove it?
o
 The author speaks about the anatomical differences betweenthe sexes
His evidence is that the two others ignored a lot of textsthat contained male and female skeletons thatdiscussed their many differences.
He argues that in England, Germany, France, there aretexts that are widely distributed. They are in thecorrespondences ability, they ideas get picked up andtransmitted. They were well known at the time andwidely used.
Why is this important?
o
 Just getting the historical time frame correct is one of them.
o
Stolberg states that Laqueur and Schiebinger maintained thatthe creation of the two sex model was created in the mid 18
th
century was a deliberate process. In order to deny womantheir equality with men. It was created to keep womansubordinate.Why does the discussion begin with the one sex model?
Galenic is an ancient anatomical physician
According to them up to the 18
th
century the one sex model wasbased on the galenic model and then they change to the two sexmodel.What is the one sex model?
Nature when its completely right, you get a male. When nature doesnot go completely right you get a female. The idea is that a femaleis really an imperfect male.
 
Heat is identified with maleness, cold with femaleness.What according to Stolberg what are the main arguments of the other guys?
Before the 18
th
century there aren’t any technical terms for thefemale anatomy to separate them from the male counterparts.
Stolberg refuses the idea that there weren’t any illustrations of thefemale and male skeletons until the 18
th
century.Stolberg believes that the other guys were trying to find a way to putwomen down. In the 18
th
century the enlightenment was occurring in whichwomen were starting to be seen as equal.
Particularly in France.
A new age of light because it asserts the fundamental human rightto liberty, and to equality.
Social order is based on a hierarchy. An arrangement of the elites ontop, the not so elite (commoners) on the bottom.
o
 The claim is that this is natural.
o
 That the social order is natural. That there are those that areborn to be leaders and show the characteristics of the nobility.
o
Natural also means as god intended.
o
God realized humans needed a hierarchy. It comes fromnature, not society.
 The enlightenment claims that this is a social structure,not natural. What is natural is the liberty and humanrights. It is in the very structure and design of nature.
Many believed it was god, while others believe it wasnature that human rights and equality was given.
 The two sex model argues that the bodies are different and isnatural that women get married, have children. They wanted asocial idea that allowed them to tell women that it was natural forthem to stay home and raise the children. It was a way to keepwomen subordinate.
o
It is inherently misogynistic
Regarding this issue Stoldberg stateswhat does autopsy mean?
 To look for oneself 
It wasn’t until this period that autopsy really begin.How does Stoldberg refute the ideas of the other guys?
 
He is going to identify the differences between the ideas in the1600s and the 18
th
century.
Dimorphism is not inherently misogynisticOn what area of the body did they focus their research on?
 They focused in the skeleton. And a primary point is the pelvis.Because it contains some of the most striking differences.
 The women’s pelvic differences were made by design. It was meantto be that way, to serve a function.Who is Felix Platter?
Felix Platter (1536 – 1614), professor of anatomy at BaselUniversity, provided the first comprehensive and systematicaccount of the peculiar features of the female skeleton. What ismore, he accompanied it with the picture of a “sceletos mulierisadultae” offering what is, to my knowledge, the first illustration of afemale skeleton and its peculiar features in the history of Westernmedicine.What are the distinguishing features?
Pelvis, thorax,
 Thorax
o
Female chest needed to support the breast.
It is science that is being understood for specific purposes. Itdescribes women’s rule in the private sphere. More domestic roles.
 The cranium
o
Women were a bit child like in the way their cranium wasconfigured. Men lose more heat through the head thanwomen, thus it was believed were not as smart.
Breast milkWhat are the social factors?
What are the gynecologists really studying?
o
 They are studying female disease and the origin of thedisease.
o
Why do men have different diseases than women?
 The uterus is the origin of physical and emotionalproblems.
o
 There is a market for the treatment of women. In the processmaking discoveries such as the fallopian tubes.

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