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Engineering Mathematics

Engineering Mathematics

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Engineering Mathematics 102....
Engineering Mathematics 102....

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Published by: sangeethsreeni on Oct 07, 2009
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Notes on Mathematics - 102
1Peeyush Chandra, A. K. Lal, V. Raghvendra, G. Santhanam
1
Supported by a grant from MHRD
 
2
 
Contents
1 Matrices 7
1.1 Denition of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.1.1 Special Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2 Operation on Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2.1 Multiplication of Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3 Some More Special Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.3.1 Submatrix of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3.1 Block Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.4 Matrices over Complex Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2 Linear System of Equations 17
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2 Denition and a Solution Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.1 A Solution Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.3 Row Operations and Equivalent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.3.1 Gauss Elimination Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.4 Row Reduced Echelon Form of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.4.1 Gauss-Jordan Elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.4.2 Elementary Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262.5 Rank of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.6 Existence of Solution of 
A
x
=
b
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.6.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.6.2 Main Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.6.3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322.7 Invertible Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.7.1 Inverse of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.7.2 Equivalent conditions for Invertibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.7.3 Inverse and Gauss-Jordan Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.8 Determinant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372.8.1 Adjoint of a Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.8.2 Cramers Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422.9 Miscellaneous Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3 Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces 45
3.1 Vector Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453.1.1 Denition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453.1.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473.1.3 Subspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

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