Turbine Heat Rates a)
Gross Turbine Heat Rate.
The gross heat rate is determined by dividing the heat added in the boiler between feedwater inlet and steam outlet by the kilowatt output of the generator at the generator terminals. The gross heat rate is expressed in Btu per kWh. For reheat cycles, the heat rate is expressed in Btu per kWh. For reheat cycles, the heat added in the boiler includes the heat added to the steam through the reheater. For typical values of gross heat rate. b)
Net Turbine Heat Rate.
The net heat rate is determined the same as for gross heat rate, except that the boiler feed pump power input is subtracted from the generator power output before dividing into the heat added in the boiler. c) Turbine Heat Rate Application. The turbine heat rate for a regenerative turbine is defined as the heat consumption of the turbine in terms of "heat energy in steam" supplied by the steam generator, minus the "heat in the feed water" as warmed by turbine extraction, divided by the electrical output at the generator terminals. This definition includes mechanical and electrical losses of the generator and turbine auxiliary systems, but excludes boiler inefficiencies and pumping losses and loads. The turbine heat rate is useful for performing engineering and economic comparisons of various turbine designs. Plant Heat Rates. Plant heat rates include inefficiencies and losses external to the turbine generator, principally the inefficiencies of the steam generator and piping systems; cycle auxiliary losses inherent in power required for pumps and fans; and related energy uses such as for soot blowing, air compression, and similar services. a) Gross Plant Heat Rate. This heat rate (Btu/kWh) is determined by dividing the total heat energy (Btu/hour) in fuel added to the boiler by the kilowatt output of the generator b) Net Plant Heat Rate. This heat rate is determined by dividing the total fuel energy (Btu/hour) added to the boiler by the difference between power (kilowatts/hour) generated and plant auxiliary electrical power consumed. Both turbine and plant heat rates, as above, are usually based on calculations of cycle performance at specified steady state loads and well defined, optimum operating conditions. Such heat rates are seldom achieved in practice except under controlled or test conditions. Plant operating heat rates are actual long term average heat rates and include other such losses and energy uses as non-cycle auxiliaries, plant lighting, air conditioning and heating, general water supply, startup and shutdown losses, fuel