which new information is generated and made available
is becoming increasingly difficult forthe practising civil engineer to decide on the appropriate norms and analytical methods to be used indesigns. Although there will always be cases necessitating a comprehensive independent literature study toascertain the best suited norms and methods to achieve a sound solution, it is recognised that they tend tobe the exception rather than the rule. The designer cannot be expected to undertake such detailed studies
each case as this would become impractical. Consequently the need for practical guidelines.The main aims of these guidelines are to make recommendations on methods of calculation, design normsas well as legal and other issues which need to be taken into consideration in the pursuit of providing safe,economical and viable river crossings. The intention is not to stifle original thinking and new development,and thus designers are expected to deviate from the general recommendations where optimum solutionsclearly fall outside the general applicable norms. The guidelines are furthermore intended to serve as abasis for governing bodies to formulate their policies on design standards with due consideration of legaland other risks.These guidelines comprise seven volumes each dealing with a particular subject or related subjects.During the 1970s and 1980s a number of major floods caused serious damage to the road and railinfrastructure in southernfrica. These events rompted the re-evaluation of design norms to secure cost-effective and safer designs to withstand the expected imposed forces.This volume deals with the rotection
embankments, flow channels and the foundations of structuresagainst water erosion, flood damage, wave action and scour as relevant.Various types
protection apble to southern frican conditions are presented under the headings
rotection, and Indirect ection. The aspects covere are the various ar ouring systems andstructures that can be utilized as protection a ainst erosion, overtopping and other hydraulic actions.ecommendations, incorpo ing recent research an technology, are made regarding methods ofcalculation, appropriate
cients and criteria to be adopted, as well as issues to be taken intoconsideration in the pursuit of finding viable solutions. In some cases suggestions are made with regard toeconomic considerations and environmental, and ecological acceptance of the protection methods.hilst this document should not be considered as corn rehensive and all-inclbsive, it does present theengineer with the basics from which mosturther reading, however, may well benecessary for complex applications.
Embankments, ban protection, direct protection, in irect protection, maintenance, design,materials and conslruction, rock fill embankments.
CSRA Guidelines for the hydraulic design and mamtenance of river crossingsVolume Ill
Committee of State Road Author~t~esouth Africa