Transitions from school to work and gender: proof of youth inequality in Argentina.Consequences for youth policy
Over the last three decades, youth studies have held that transitions towards adulthood are becoming more extended, complex and non-standarized. Arguments are sustained contraryto what is considered the core features of post-war youth transitions: lineal, homogeneous,standarized features
.Some concepts are key to construe such transitions: globalization,individuation, biographization, post-modernity (Beck U. 1998; Bendit R., Hahn M. and A.(editors) 2008).Furthermore, researches have also pointed out that the greatest heterogeneity of transitionstowards adulthood is developed within a context of great social uncertainty andvulnerability. Individual family resources are acquiring greater significance within aframework of lesser social protection (Castel R. 1997; Biggart A., Bendit R., Cairns D.,Hein K. and Morch S. 2004; Machado País J. 2004).Due to these trends, the analysis of transitions between education and work of youths inLatin America acquires greater complexity rising from a set of particularities which belongto peripheric societies themselves. Particularities are related to the existence of wide poblational groups which survive within a wide deprivation context and which do not participate in the dynamics of formal work. Latin American literature has developedsignificant contributions to understand such phenomena (Prebisch R. 1988; Cardoso FHand Faletto E. 1990; Portes A. 1994; Nun J. 1999).In Argentina, globalization and individuation processes have strongly impacted to widenthe gap of opportunities and accesses of youths from different social sectors. For example,at present there are groups of youths connected to global communication and consumptionnetworks living with groups of youths from peripheric locations where the “barrio” is theonly known reality (Kessler G. 2004; Miranda A. 2007).This paper attempts to prove inequality of living conditions of youths in Argentina risingfrom an analysis on the transition between education and work of youths from differentsocial sectors and gender. Analysis is performed on the basis of primary quantitativeinformation gathered in a youth survey applied in four Argentine cities having well
It is necesary to highlight that some studies show that youth condition in the second post-war has not beendeeply researched, passages were as homogenous as supposed to be. Pursuant to these studies, during thefifties youths changed many times their jobs, and during recession periods they experienced increasingemployment problems. Biggart A., Furlong A and Cartmel F. (2008). Biografías de elección y linealidadtransicional: nueva conceptualización de las transiciones de la juventud moderna. Los jóvenes y el futuro: procesos de inclusión social y patrones de vulnerabilidad en un mundo globalizado. Bendit R, Hahn M. andMiranda A. Buenos Aires, Prometeo.