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Unit 1 – Historical Development Definition of Management – Science

Unit 1 – Historical Development Definition of Management – Science

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Published by: prasanth6 on Oct 08, 2009
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Unit 1 – Historical DevelopmentDefinition of Management – Science or Art – Management andAdministration – Development of Management thought – Contributionof Taylor and Fayol – Functions of Management – Types of BusinessOrganisation _____________________________________________________________ Evolution of Management Thought-
as how the mind controls the human body and its function similar management (mind) controls the various activities ( human body)in the Organisation
Collection of physical equipments, 4 M’s in Organisation – Men,Machine, Materials, Money, leads to nothing. For efficient and profitable functioning it is necessary that all these factors are put towork in a co-ordinated manner.
Management Definition
Management is the art of getting things done through others. HaroldKoontz Def as “ Management is the process of designing and maintainingan environment in which individuals, working together in groups efficientlyto accomplish selected aims”
Managers carry out their managerial function
Applies to any kind of Organisation
Applies to managers at all Organisational levels
Aim is to create a surplus
Concerned with productivity, implies effectiveness and efficiency
Mgt of 4 M’s in the Orgn – Men, Machine, Materials & money
Characteristics of Management
1.Mgt is Universal2.Mgt is Purposeful3.Mgt is integrative Function4.Mgt is a Social process5.Mgt is a Multi disciplinary6.Mgt is a continuous process7.Mgt is intangible8.Mgt is an art as well as a science
1Legislative &determination functionExecutive Function2Determination oobjectives & policiesImplementation of Policies3Provides a sketch othe enterpriseProvides the entire body4Influenced mainlyby public opinion & other outside forceInfluenced mainly byadministrative function5Mainly top levelfunction involvesthinking & planningMainly middle levelfunction involves doingand acting
Management as an Art
Art involves the practical application of personal skills andknowledge to achieve concrete results
It is a practical way of doing specific things
Art is a personalised process and every artist has his own style. Artis essentially creative and the success of an artist is measured by the resultshe achieves
Art is a practice based and perfection in it requires continuous practice over a long period of time.The main elements of an art are – a.Personal Skills b.Practical know-howc.Result orientationd.Creativitye.Constant practice aimed at perfection
Management is basically an art because of the following reasons
A manager applies his knowledge and skills to coordinate the effortsof his people
Mgt seeks to achieve concrete practical results
Mgt is creative. It brings out new situation and converts into output
Effective Mgt lead to realization of Organizational and other goals.Mastery in Mgt requires a sufficiently long period of experience in,managing.
Management as Science
The essential elements of Science1.is a systematised body of Knowledge2.contains underlying principles and theories developed throughcontinuous observation, experimentation and research.3.Universal applicability4.Organised body of knowledge can be taught and learnt in class room andoutside.- Mgt is a science becoz it contains all the essential of scienceThus, the theory (Science) and practice (art) of Mgt go side by side for the efficient functioning of an organisation.
Management as a Profession
The essential attribute of a profession1.A well-defined and organised body of knowledge2.Learning and Experience3.Entry restricted by qualification4.Recognised national body5.Ethical code of conduct6.Dominance of service motive

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