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The Coefficent of Restitution,momentum & impulse,mechanics revision notes from A-level Maths Tutor

The Coefficent of Restitution,momentum & impulse,mechanics revision notes from A-level Maths Tutor

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The Coefficient of Restitution (e) is a variable number with no units, with limits from zero to one. 0 ≤ e ≤ 1
'e' is a consequence of Newton's Experimental Law of Impact, which describes how the speed of separation of two impacting bodies compares with their speed of approach.
The Coefficient of Restitution (e) is a variable number with no units, with limits from zero to one. 0 ≤ e ≤ 1
'e' is a consequence of Newton's Experimental Law of Impact, which describes how the speed of separation of two impacting bodies compares with their speed of approach.

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Published by: A-level Maths Tutor on Oct 08, 2009
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11/28/2012

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Momentum & Impulse
 
Mechanics
 
topic notes
 
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 
The Coefficient of Restitution
The
Coefficient of Restitution (e)
is a variable number with no units, with limits fromzero to one.0
e
1'e' is a consequence of 
Newton's Experimental Law of Impact
, which describes howthe speed of separation of two impacting bodies compares with their
 
speed of approach.note: the speeds are
relative
speedsIf we consider the speed of individual masses before and after collision, we obtain anotheruseful equation:
u
A
= initial speed of mass A
u
B
= initial speed of mass B
v
A
= final speed of mass A
v
B
= final speed of mass Brelative initial speed of mass A to mass B =
u
B
- u
A
relative final speed of mass A to mass B =
v
B
-
v
A
 note
:
in this equation the absolute of 
u
B
- u
A
and
v
B
-
v
A
are used ( |absolute| no netnegative result )
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 
 
Momentum & Impulse
 
Mechanics
 
topic notes
 
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 
ExampleA 5 kg mass moving at 6 ms
-1
makes a head-on collision with a 4 kg mass travelling at 3ms
-1
.Assuming that there are no external forces acting on the system, what are the velocities of the two masses after impact?(assume coefficient of restitution e = 0.5 )
u
A
= initial speed of 5 kg mass (mass A)= 6 ms
-1
 
u
B
= initial speed of 4 kg mass (mass B)= 3 ms
-1
 
m
A
= 5 kg
m
B
= 4 kg
v
A
= final speed of mass A
v
B
= final speed of mass Bmomentum before the collision equals momentum after
hence, m
A
 
u
A
+
m
B
 
u
B
=
m
A
v
A
+
m
B
v
B
alsosubstituting for e,
m
A
,
u
A
,
m
B
,
u
B
we obtain two simultaneous equationsfrom the conservation of momentum,5 x 0.6 + 4(-3) = 5
v
A
+ 4
v
B
3 - 12 = 5
v
A
+ 4
v
B
-9 = 5
v
A
+ 4
v
B
5
v
A
+ 4
v
B
= -9 (i
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 
 
Momentum & Impulse
 
Mechanics
 
topic notes
 
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 
from the coefficient of restitution expression,0.5(
u
A
-
u
B
) =
v
B
-
v
A
(0.5 x 6) - (0.5(-3)) =
v
B
-
v
A
3 + 1.5 =
v
B
-
v
A
4.5 =
v
B
-
v
A
v
B
-
v
A
= 4.5 (iimultiplying (ii by 5 and adding5
v
A
+ 4
v
B
= -9- 5
v
A
 
+ 5 v
B
= 22.59
v
B
= 13.5
B
= 1.5 ms
-1
from (ii1.5 -
v
A
= 4.5
v
A
= 1.5 - 4.5 = -3
A
= -3 ms
-1
 Ans. The velocities of the 5 kg and 4 kg masses are -3 ms
-1
and 1.5 ms
-1
, respectively.
A-level Maths Tutor www.a-levelmathstutor.com info@a-levelmathstutor.com
 

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