Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Second Language Acquisition Essay

Second Language Acquisition Essay

Ratings: (0)|Views: 114|Likes:
Published by Phil Longwell
Second Language Acquisition essay from the University of Warwick. Work is my own. Grade: 72%.
Second Language Acquisition essay from the University of Warwick. Work is my own. Grade: 72%.

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Phil Longwell on Feb 20, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/24/2014

pdf

text

original

 
ET990-2 Second Language Acquisition and Classroom Language Learning Student I/D: 1163612 0
CENTRE FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS MA ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET STUDENT ID NUMBER: 1163612 PROGRAMME: MA IN ELTMM/ICT MODULE NAME: SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND CLASSROOM LANGUAGE TEACHING ET990-2 MODULE TUTORS: EMA USHIODA / ANNA-MARIA PINTER WORD COUNT: 3,257 ASSIGNMENT QUESTION:
DATE DUE: 12 NOON on 12 JANUARY 2012
DATE SUBMITTED: 10 JANUARY 2012
In completing the details on this cover sheet and submitting the assignment, you are doing so on the basis that this assignment is all your own work and that you have not borrowed or failed to
acknowledge anyone else’s work
 Please X this box if you agree to this statement
X
 
 
ET990-2 Second Language Acquisition and Classroom Language Learning Student I/D: 1163612 1
INTRODUCTION
There has been a paradigm shift in motivation research in respect of second language acquisition (SLA) over the last twenty years. In the early 1990s, there was a sense that the social-psychological tradition, which framed methods of enquiry, had run its course and that alternative perspectives were needed to revitalise and refocus the L2 motivation field (
(Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2011:46).
There was a subsequent phase, the cognitive-situated period, drawing on cognitive theories from educational psychology. Out of this came a process-oriented approach, focusing on changes in individual involvement over time. This, in turn, has evolved into (or perhaps merged with) a new socio-dynamic phase
(Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2011:69).
 I will discuss several key empirical studies into L2 motivation, roughly arranged in order of whether they take a quantitative, qualitative or
‘mixed
 methods
 approach. It must, however, be noted that despite the obvious distinctions
and 
 the preference to view these on a continuum
(Dörnyei, 2007:25)
, they have ideological differences, a contrast in categorization and a contrast in the perception of individual diversity which permeates the methodology used. I will follow this with my own commentary, the implications which can be drawn for my own research and in what ways I have reflected about SLA in the last few months.
QUANTITATIVE APPROACH
 Quantitative social research grew out of the d
esire to emulate the ‘objective’ procedures found in
the natural sciences.
The use of measurable, statistically based evidence, ‘a priori categorization’,
variables rather than cases, and standardized procedures seeks to eradicate researcher subjectivity. It is systematic and rigorous, and uses in-built cross-checking indices
(Dörnyei, 2007:32-34)
.
Language learners’ attitudes and motivation have traditionally been measured by means of
quantitative methods, typically using large-scale questionnaire surveys, to account for the attitudes of whole speech communities. Most empirical research up until the 1990s was dominated by a social-psychological approach initiated in bilingual Canada by Robert Gardner, Wallace Lambert and Richard Clément. This is understandable, according to Dörnyei
(1998:122)
:
since learning the language of another community simply cannot be separated from the
learners’ social dispositions towards the speech community in question … the ‘students’ attitudes
towards the specific language group are bound to influence how successful they will be in incorporating aspects of that language (Gardner, 1985, in Dörnyei, 1998:122).
 
ET990-2 Second Language Acquisition and Classroom Language Learning Student I/D: 1163612 2 Gardner et al
(1985)
 developed a standardized motivation battery, the AMTB (Attitude/Motivation Test Battery) to measure integrative and instrumental orientation, via an AM Index. The former reflects a sincere interest in the target language culture and a desire to interact with the members of that community, while the latter emphasizes the pragmatic gains or practical advantages, such as getting a job with a higher salary. Students with
dormant
 French were used deliberately, in one particular study
(Gardner and MacIntyre, 1991),
as explained:
The reason for using subjects who had not studied French for some time was not taken lightly. Given the materials to be learned, it was known on the basis of previous research (Gardner, Lalonde, & Moorcroft, 1985) that such individuals would not know any of the vocabulary items at the outset of the study, and that consequently the rate of learning would reflect factors operating in the learning task itself as opposed to transfer from previous knowledge. Since the major focus was on the effects that attitudes and motivation, on the one hand, and monetary rewards, on the other, had on the French vocabulary learning (and other relevant behaviors), such control seems mandatory. (Gardner and MacIntyre, 1991:60)
Instrumental motivation of a $10 reward was offered randomly to half of the subjects if they achieved a superior level of success in the learning task
(Gardner and MacIntyre, 1991:59)
. Timed responses to eight different attitudinal/motivational characteristics (subscales) were obtained using a microcomputer
(see Appendix A)
. Subjects were subsequently given six attempts to learn 26 English/French word pairs using an anticipation method. Results were presented by a series of graphs plotting the two prescribed types of motivation against performance and a correlation table using the subscales. Conclusions were drawn that instrumentally motivated students, where there was an opportunity to profit, studied longer than those who were not. In addition, there was an indication that a reaction time index might provide a method of identifying social desirability
(Gardner and MacIntyre, 1991:57)
. Gardner
(1985:169)
 had previously stated that the source of the motivating impetus is relatively unimportant, provided that motivation is aroused. However, the source of this motivation
is
 important for practising teachers who need to stimulate motivation. Researchers have claimed that both integrative and instrumental orientations play a part in performance and that the results could be generalized to actual language acquisition. These orientations, however, do not adequately summarise all possible reasons, as pointed out by Oxford and Shearin
(1994)
 when highlighting the
(1991)
 case of 218 American high school students who were asked to write an essay explaining their motivation for studying Japanese:
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->