T-Test Tutorial Vince Migliore www.BlossomHillBooks.email@example.com 1
Statistics: Understanding the Student
Vince MiglioreAre you challenged by all the odd names, formulas, and concepts that go intounderstanding statistics? Well, here is a simple, pictorial method for understanding one of the most common tests in research, the
test. We’ll use a no
-math approachthat will help you read and understand statistical significance testing. With just four basic
examples, you’ll be up and running in no time.
Let’s look at a High School in Kentucky. We have measured the heigh
t in inches of theentire student body. There are four groups we are interested in:
Honor Roll students
Jockey Club students, and
The basketball team.They each have their heights charted in Figure 1. Just think about these groups. If you canget the basics of these four groups in your head, you are 99% of the way towardunderstanding the tests.
The Honor Roll Students.
We’d expect them to be all different height
s, and be prettymuch the same spread from short to tall as the entire student population. (See the Bluedistribution.) In the language of statistics, we would say they have much the same spread,or
as the total student body, and about the same average height, or
as the other students.
We’d expect them to
be mixed heights, but in this case the coach wants achorus line effect with most of the girls about the same height. So their average height isnear the overall student average height, but they are pretty much bunched up in themiddle. There are no very short or very tall girls in this group. (See the Greendistribution.)
Again, in stat talk, you’d say they have a different
,because they are all of similar heights. Their
height, though, is close to the studentaverage.
Jockey Club Students.
Here we have very light weight, and therefore short students.These students are also bunched up around a very low average height. (See the Magentadistribution.) The jockeys have a narrow spread in heights, and therefore a smaller
, and a lower than average
The basketball players are much taller than the other groups, and theytoo have a narrow range of heights. (See the Moss-green distribution.) They also have asmaller
, but a taller than average