Candidate (001241 003) 3
B. Summary of Evidence
Prior to World War II, most Asian immigrants sought for prosperity as workers in other countries before they return to China. In the United States, the Chinese Exclusion Law of 1882(extended indefinitely in 1904) rejected all Chinese immigrants and the Scott Act of 1888 barredre-entry Asians who returned to visit their home countries. Consequently, Chinese immigration“declined 40 percent between 1880 and 1890.”
Finally in 1946, the Luce-Celler Act allowednaturalization for over 80,000 Filipinos who had enlisted in the U.S. military and increased thequotas for all Asians. Elsewhere in Canada and Australia, similar adjustments emerged.Since the late nineteenth century, the White Canada and White Australia immigration policies were strictly enforced. After the Gold Rush era of 1851 to 1860, immigration rates peaked at approximately 50,000 per year. These non-English-speaking immigrant groups wereconsidered “unassimilable or [threatening to] social harmony or employment conditions.”
Of the two and a half million immigrants to Canada between 1896 and 1914: about forty percent areBritish, thirty percent are Americans, and roughly over twenty percent are continental Europeansdue to the “White Canada” policies.
Hence, immigrants from Asia remained only part of thesum in the remaining ten percent identified as “all others” from late nineteenth century to mid-twentieth century. Similar to Canada, the Immigration Restriction Act from 1901 to 1958 preserved a “White Australia” thirteen years behind World War II. The series of White Australia policies in Australia such as the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901 also used devices such as"dictation test" to exclude unwanted immigrants.For the United States in 1943, the Chinese Exclusion Act was finally repealed by theMagnuson Act, which allowed the naturalization of Chinese residents and increased the quota of
Campi, Alicia. “‘Eating Bitterness’: The Impact of Asian-Pacific Migration on U.S. Immigration Policy.”
Immigration Policy Center
. 12 Nov 2008 <http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/index.php?content=pr0405>
From White Australia to Woomera
. (‘2nd ed.’ New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007) 14.
Refer to Data Set 1.2