High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The original ISO standards for HDLC are: ISO 3309
Q.2. Virtually all networks in use today are based in some fashion on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standard. The core of this standard is the OSI Reference Model, a set of seven layers that define the different stages that data must go through to travel from one device to another over a network. Explain the seven layer architecture of OSI model with diagram. Ans: OSI reference model :
The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.
Q.3. Consider yourself as the operation head in a telecommunication company. What are the different types of multiplexing techniques will you implement to get efficient data transmission process? Ans:
Multiplexing is a technology to transfer digital or analog data in daily use devices like telephone and television. Here, we discuss the various multiplexing technologies used for data transmission.
Multiplexing is a method of combining multiple analog massage signals or digital data streams into one signal. The objective of this technology is to share an expensive medium for transmitting multiple signals. Actually, the low-level communication signals are divided into high-level logical channels using this technology. Furthermore, each channel is then used for transmitting one message signal or data stream.
Q.4. Integrated Services for Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for Simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book. Explain the different types of ISDN with their features and advantages for each one of them. (Explaining Two different types , Features of both of them , Advantages of both of them) 2,4,4 ANS: Different types of ISDN :
Integrated services refers to ISDN's ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice, video, and fax, over a single line. Multiple devices can be attached to the line, and used as needed. That means an ISDN line can take care of most people's complete communications needs (apart from broadband
Q.5. ABC company is an internet service provider. The main goal of ABC is to provide 24 X7X365 storage capacity, storage management and internet service to the customers. It now needs a solution that will eliminate downtime. Downtime is nothing but the time during which a computer or computer system is down, or inoperative due to hardware or software failure. We also need the