Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Standard view
Full view
of .
×
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
Missile Autopilot Aerodynamics

# Missile Autopilot Aerodynamics

Ratings: 0|Views: 1,454|Likes:

### Availability:

See More
See less

01/07/2013

pdf

text

original

1
MISSILE AUTOPILOT AERODYNAMICS
1.The motion of a guided missile in flight can be resolved into two types:-(a)The translational motion of centre of gravity of the missile and(b)The rotational motion about the centre of gravity of the missile.2.The forces acting on a missile in flight are generally not applied at thecentre of gravity (c.g.) of the missile. However, each force can be decomposedinto two parts:-(a)The forces that cause translational motion of c.g. and(b)The moments that cause rotary motion with respect to c.g.Forces Acting on a Missile3.The c.g. moves in flight due to three main forces namely(a)Engine thrust,(b)Resultant aerodynamic forces i.e., lift and drag and(c)Earths gravitational force.4.The forces acting on a missile are pictorially depicted in Fig.1 below:V is the velocity vector. T is the engine thrust.D is the drag force (aerodynamic force component acting opposite tovelocity vector).L is the lift (aerodynamic force component directed perpendicular tovelocity vector).G is the gravitational force acting vertically downwards .Θ is the trajectory angle or angle between velocity vector and horizontal.ν is the pitch angle or angle between thrust vector and horizontal. Thisdetermines the position of the missile longitudinal axis with respect tohorizontal.R is the resultant of the aerodynamic forces L and D.5.Now the forces are resolved into two components namely(a)The components acting in the direction of flight, F
T
and(b)The components acting perpendicular to the direction of flight, F
N
.

26.The sum of all the force components acting in the direction of flight isgiven by the equationFT =-G*sinθ-D+T*cosα ____________________(1)While the sum of all the force components acting perpendicular to the directionof flight is given byFN =-G*cosθ+L+T*sinα ____________________(2) The force F
T
changes the value of the velocity vector while the force F
N
changesthe direction of motion of the missile. Hence in order to control the direction of motion of the missile, it is required to control F
N
.7.Since the value of angle of attack during the missile flight is comparativelysmall, it can be assumed that sin α=α. Thus equation (2) can be written asFN =-G*cosθ+L+Tα ______________________(3)8.For small angles of attack, the lift of the guided missile is given byL=lαα _______________________________________(4)Where lα is a constant of proportionality between lift and angle of attack.9.Substituting for L, eqn.(3) becomesFN =-G*cosθ+(lα+T)α ______________________(5)10.The gravity force component –G*cos θ cannot be used as a control force. Thus the direction of motion of the missile can be controlled by changing thecomponent (lα+T)α which consists of the lift and thrust components. For aconstant thrust, T, this force F
N
will be proportional to the angle of attack, α.Hence it is required to create an angle of attack in order to guide the missile inflight.11.The angle of attack can be changed by providing canard or tail control. Incase of canard control, the nose part of the missile is provided with ruddervatorswhich control the translational (pitch and yaw) (and ailerons for rotary (roll))motion of the missile with respect to c.g. by changing the angle of attack.Moments Acting on a Missile in Flight12.The moments that cause rotational motion of the missile in flight can bedue to:(a)Control moments of ruddervators and ailerons and(b)Disturbing and stabilising moments.13.Control moments of ruddervators and ailerons.The guided missileaerodynamics consists of two pairs of ruddervators located towards the nosepart which control the pitch and yaw motion of the missile and hence its

3trajectory of flight. The two ailerons located on the trailing edges of the wingsensure roll angle stabilisation. If the aileron deviates through an angle δ from itsequilibrium position, this creates an angle of attack due to which lift is generatedby the aileron. This is shown in Fig. 2.(a)Considering that the lift, L
a
, is generated along the Y axis, theaileron generates two moments, one along the X axis and the other along the Zaxis. The moment along X axis is given by the product of the lift, L
a
, and thedistance between the centre of pressure (c.p.) of aileron and centre of gravity(c.g.) of the missile along the X axis. The moment along Z axis is given by theproduct of the lift, L
a
, and the distance between the c.p. of aileron and c.g. of missile along Z axis.(b)The ailerons 1 and 2 are interconnected. Hence any deflection of one of them creates a deflection exactly opposite on the other, i.e., if one of them deflects upward, the other deflects downward. Hence when the sum of moments of lift force of both the ailerons acting on the missile are considered,the moments along the lateral axis (Z) are opposite to each other and will cancelout. The moments along the longitudinal axis (X) will add up and equal to 2* L
a
*l
x
.(c)The ruddervators 3 and 4, as well as 5 and 6 are connected in pairsand turn together but in opposite directions. In a similar fashion to the aileron, itcan be shown that the moments created by any deflection to the ruddervators 3and 4 creates a resultant moment which acts only along the Z-axis and similarly,the deflection to the ruddervators 5 and 6 creates a resultant moment whichacts along Y-axis.(d)The control moments of the ruddervators, M
rud
, and that of theailerons, Mxd, are proportional to the angles of deflection of the respectiveruddervators and ailerons. Hence,Mrud=Mδδ kgf-m _____________________(6)andMxd=Mxδδail kgf-m ___________________(7)where δ and δ
ail
are the deflection angles of ruddervators and ailerons. Themaximum angle is limited to 30 degrees. M
δ
and Mxδ are proportionalityconstants given byMδ=mδqSwb kgf-m/deg _______________(8)andMxδ=mxδqSwl kgf-m/deg _________________(9)where m
δ
and m
δx
are efficiency factors of the ruddervators and ailerons,q is the ram pressure in kgf/m
2
,

## Activity (9)

### Showing

AllMost RecentReviewsAll NotesLikes