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U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe - A Review of Post-Cold War Policy, Force Levels, and War Planning

U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe - A Review of Post-Cold War Policy, Force Levels, and War Planning

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Published by: Theatrum Belli on Oct 09, 2009
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U.S. NuclearWeapons in Europe
A Review of Post-Cold War Policy,Force Levels, and War Planning
Prepared byHans M. Kristensen
 
Natural Resources Defense CouncilFebruary 2005
 
 
U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe
Hans M. Kristensen/Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005
2
 
About the Author
Hans M. Kristensen is an independent nuclear weapons policy analyst who hasspent the last 20 years researching nuclear weapons policy and operations. Hespecializes in using the Freedom of Information Act to obtain declassifieddocuments and is a consultant to the nuclear program at the Natural ResourcesDefense Council in Washington D.C. Kristensen is the co-author of the bi-monthly NRDC Nuclear Notebook in
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
andwrites the World Nuclear Forces appendix to the SIPRI Yearbook. His otherpublications are available on his web site at http://www.nukestrat.com.
Acknowledgments
This report builds upon the extensive research conducted by independent analystsin the United States and Europe over the past several decades. Deciphering theinfrastructure of nuclear operations is difficult and time consuming but anecessary and important task.My research and writing for this report was conducted with the generous supportfrom the Ploughshares Fund. Robert S. Norris, Thomas B. Cochran, AlexandraKennaugh, Elliott Negin and Alistair Millar provided much needed editorialassistance. Matthew McKinzie did his magic with maps and satellite images.
Further Information
A copy of this report (PDF color) and the individual color satellite images fromAppendix C are available on the NRDC web site athttp://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/euro/contents.asp© Hans M. Kristensen / Natural Resources Defense Council, 20051200 New York Avenue, N.E., Suite 400Washington, D.C. 20005Phone: (202) 289-6868Fax: (202) 289-1060Web: http://www.nrdc.orgFront page photo: The tail section of a B61 nuclear bomb undergoing testing atSandia National Laboratories.
Source: Sandia National Laboratories
.
 
U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe
Hans M. Kristensen/Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005
3
Table of Contents
Executive Summary................................................................................................5Large U.S. Nuclear Force Remains in Europe........................................................8Underground Nuclear Weapons Storage Logistics...........................................13Stockpile Upgrades Made Under Guise of Safety Concerns............................20History of U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe........................................................24Security Fears Trim Excessive Deployment in 1970s......................................24Public Uproar in mid-1980s Forces More Reductions.....................................27Rationale for U.S. Deployment in Europe Challenged by World Events.........28The 1991 Gulf War Helps Create New Justification........................................29New Cuts Lead to New Reaffirmation of Nuclear Role...................................32Nuclear Reductions Trigger Security Problems...............................................34Nuclear Planning in Europe Modernized..............................................................37Nuclear Strike Training.....................................................................................42The 1994 Nuclear Posture Review.......................................................................44Nuclear Deployment Reorganized....................................................................46European Changes Increase Importance of U.S. fighter bombers....................48NATO Expansion East Reaffirms Status Quo..................................................50More Safety Concerns Raise Alarm.................................................................50New Presidential Guidance But No Change.........................................................53Call for Review of NATO Policy Opens Debate..............................................53Nuclear Burden-Sharing Begins to Unravel.....................................................55More Policy Refinement but Little Actual Change..........................................60The 2001 Nuclear Posture Review.......................................................................62Prospects for Change........................................................................................65Conclusions and Recommendations.....................................................................70
Figures
Figure 1: Locations of U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe.......................................8Figure 2: Close-Up of Protective Aircraft Shelters...............................................10Figure 3: Elevated Weapon Storage Vault in Hangar...........................................15Figure 4: Weapon Storage Vault Loading Demonstration...................................16Figure 5: Protective Aircraft Shelter Weapon Storage Vault Location................18Figure 6: NATO Nuclear Weapons Maintenance Truck......................................18Figure 7: Weapon Storage Security System Modernization.................................20

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