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Hand Book on Effective Commn 158

Hand Book on Effective Commn 158



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Published by jash_003

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Published by: jash_003 on Oct 10, 2009
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Page 1 of 68
What is Communication?
How does one talk so that another person listens and understands? How does one listen? How does one knowif he has been heard and understood?These are all points about communication that have never before been analyzed or explained.People have known that communication is an important part of life but until now no one has ever been ableto tell anyone
to communicate.Until Scientology, the subject of communication had received no emphasisor study. Any attention given to it was mechanical and the province of engineers. Yet all human endeavor depends utterly on a full knowledge of the real basics of communication.To master communication, one must understand it.In Scientology, communication
been defined – an accomplishment thathas led to a much deeper understanding of life itself.Communication, in essence, is the shift of a particle from one part of spaceto another part of space. A
is the thing being communicated. It canbe an object, a written message, a spoken word or an idea. In its crudestdefinition, this
communication.This simple view of communication leads to the full definition:
Communication is the consideration and action of impelling an impulse or particle from source-point across adistance to receipt-point, with the intention of bringing into being at thereceipt-point a duplication and understanding of that which emanated fromthe source-point. Duplication
is the act of reproducing something exactly.
means“came forth.”The formula of communication is cause, distance, effect, with intention,attention and duplication
with understanding.
The definition and formula of communication open the door to understanding this subject. By dissectingcommunication into its component parts, we can view the function of each and thus more clearly understandthe whole.
. . . a written message. . .. . . a spoken word. . .. . . or an idea.
Page 2 of 68
 Any successful communication contains all theelements shown here. Any failure to communicate canbe analyzed against these components to isolate what went wrong.
Barriers to Effective Communication
There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the communication process.This can occur when people now each other very well and should understand the sources of error. In a work setting, it is even more common since interactions involve people who not only don't have years of experience with each other, but communication is complicated by the complex and often conflictualrelationships that exist at work. In a work setting, the following suggests a number of sources of noise:
Language: The choice of words or language in which a sender encodes a message will influence thequality of communication. Because language is a symbolic representation of a phenomenon, room forinterpreation and distortion of the meaning exists. In the above example, the Boss uses language (thisis the third day you've missed) that is likely to convey far more than objective information. To Terryit conveys indifference to her medical problems. Note that each different person will interpret thesame words different. Meaning has to be given to words and many factors affect how an individualwill attribute meaning to particular words. It is important to note that no two people will attribute theexact same meaning to the same words.
Defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past
Misreading of body language, tone and other non-verbal forms of communication (see section below)
Noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)
Receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues
Power struggles
self-fulfilling assumptions
Language-different levels of meaning
Managers hesitation to be candid
Assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you
Distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people
Page 3 of 68
Perceptual Biases:
People attend to stimuli in the environment in very different ways. We each haveshortcuts that we use to organize data. Invariably, these shortcuts introduce some biases intocommunication. Some of these shortcuts include stereotyping, projection, and self-fulfillingprophecies. Stereotyping is one of the most common. This is when we assume that the other personhas certain characteristics based on the group to which they belong without validating that they in facthave these characteristics.
Interpersonal Relationships:
How we perceive communication is affected by the past experiencewith the individual. Perception is also affected by the organizational relationship two people have.For example, communication from a superior may be perceived differently than that from asubordinate or peer
Cultural Differences:
Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values, motives,aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given some dramatic differencesacross cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space, and privacy, the opportunities for mis-communication while we are in cross-cultural situations are plentiful.
Developing Communication Skills: Listening Skills
There are a number of situations when you need to solicit good information from others; thesesituations include interviewing candidates, solving work problems, seeking to help an employee onwork performance, and finding out reasons for performance discrepancies.Skill in communication involves a number of specific strengths. The first we will discuss involveslistening skills. The following lists some suggests for effective listening when confronted with aproblem at work:
Listen openly and with empathy to the other person
Judge the content, not the messenger or delivery; comprehend before you judge
Use multiple techniques to fully comprehend (ask, repeat, rephrase, etc.)
Active body state; fight distractions
Ask the other person for as much detail as he/she can provide; paraphrase what the other issaying to make sure you understand it and check for understanding
Respond in an interested way that shows you understand the problem and the employee'sconcern
Attend to non-verbal cues, body language, not just words; listen between the lines
Ask the other for his views or suggestions
State your position openly; be specific, not global
Communicate your feelings but don't act them out (eg. tell a person that his behavior reallyupsets you; don't get angry)
Be descriptive, not evaluative-describe objectively, your reactions, consequences
Be validating, not invalidating ("You wouldn't understand"); acknowledge other;'s uniqueness,importance
Be conjunctive, not disjunctive (not "I want to discuss this regardless of what you want todiscuss");
Don't totally control conversation; acknowledge what was said
Own up: use "I", not "They"... not "I've heard you are noncooperative"
Don't react to emotional words, but interpret their purpose

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