NCM 104 GU-Nsg.
Paul Christian P. Santos
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
-maintain the volume and composition of body fluid by filtration of the blood andselective reabsorption or secretion of filteredsolutes.-retroperitoneal organs-situated on the posterior wall of theabdomen on each side of the vertebralcolumn, at about the level of the twelfth rib. -left kidney is lightly higher in the abdomenthan the right, due to the presence of the liver pushing the right kidney down.- take their blood supply directly from theaorta via the renal arteries; blood is returnedto the inferior vena cava via the renal veins.
1)Controls fluid and electrolyte balance(Na &K)2)Urine formation3)Excrete end products of body metabolism(urea, uric acid, creatinine)4)Secrete renin & eryhtropoietin5)Manufacture & activation of vitamin D for normal calcium balance
-pale outer region
-darker inner regionhas 8-18 conical regions, called the renalpyramids*cortex and the medulla are made up of
-base of each pyramid starts at thecorticomedullary border -apex of each pyramid ends in the
which merges to form the
and then on to form the ureter.
-is divided into two or three spaces
*walls of the calyces, pelvis and ureters are lined withsmooth muscle that can contract to force urinetowards the bladder by peristalsis.The renal corpuscle is made up of the glomerulus (acapillary network) and Bowman's capsule (the end of the tubule
-these are the functional units of the kidney,and each kidney contains about 1.3 million-responsible for “ultrafiltration” of the bloodand reabsorption or excretion of products inthe subsequent filtrate-made up of:1}
-filtering unit- 125ml/minof filtrate is formed by the kidneys asblood is filtered through this
. This filtration isuncontrolled2}
-controlled absorption of glucose,sodium, and other solutes goes on inthis region.3}
-responsible for concentration anddilution of urine by utilizing “
mechanism”-it is water-impermeable butcan pump sodium out, which affectsthe osmolarity tissues and will affectthe subsequent movement of water in or out of the water-permeablecollecting duct.
-responsible, along withthe
for absorbingwater back into the body-kidney doesn't produce 125ml of urine every minute. 99% of the water is normally reabsorbed, leavinghighly concentrated urine to flow intothe collecting duct and then into therenal pelvis.*G
(GFR) is the volume of ultrafiltrate made per minute by both kidneys. TheGFR is an important measure of kidney function
-muscular ducts that propelurinefromthekidneysto theurinary bladder.
-25–30 cm (10–12 in) long (adult)-arise from the renal pelvis on the medialaspect of each kidney before descendingtowards the bladder on the front of thepsoasmajor muscle-cross the pelvic brim near the bifurcation of the iliac arteries*pelviureteric junction is a common site for theimpaction of kidney stones(the 2