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Vertical number line
Positive and Negative Numbers
In a weather forecast, it is predicted that it will rain inthe city
P
with a minimum temperature of 1 ºC belowzero and a maximum temperature of 6 ºC. It will besunny in the city
Q
with a temperature of 6 ºC andcloudy in the city
R
with a temperature of 10 ºC. Canwhole numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, ... represent the situationabove?A bird is perching on the top of the mast of afisherman’s boat with a height of 3 metres. Meanwhile,the fisherman is diving 5 meters under the sea level.Look at the picture of a thermometer onthe right. What numbers are on thepicture?You may write the temperature of 5 degrees above zeroas 5ºC, and write the temperature of 5 degrees belowzero as -5ºC. The number 5 is read as
positive
5 while thenumber –5 is read as
negative
5. The numbers 5 and -5can be drawn on a vertical or a horizontal line asfollows.
Horizontal number line
What are you going to learn?

To use negativenumbers

To draw integers ina number line

To compareintegers

To put integers in asequence
Key Terms:

integerspositive integersnegative integers

number line

- +50-5-5 0 +5

11..11
Mathematics for Junior High School - Year 7 / 1

A
set of integers;
...,
3,
2,
1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
, can besymbolized as
I
. The three dots (...) on the right andthe left mean that the numbers continue withoutending to both directions.The complete number line of integers can be drawn asfollows.a. Determine all integers between
5 and 4.
Solution:
4,
3,
2,
1, 0, 1, 2, 3b. Write all even integers between
6 and 11.
Solution:
The even integers between
6 and 11 are
4,
2, 0, 2,4, 6, 8, and 1
Positive integers

positive nor negative0 is neither

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1
Negative integers

0
1 2 3 4 5 6

Example 1
Use the number line above, answer the following:

What is the number on the left of 0 with the samedistance as the distance from 0 to 2? The number iscalled the
inverse
of 2.

What is the number on the right of 0 with the samedistance as the distance from 0 to -4? The number iscalled the inverse of -4.

What is the sum of -4 and its inverse?

What is the inverse of 6?

What is the inverse of -5?

Without using a number line, find the inverse of 12.

Without using a number line, find the inverse of
15.

Does every integer have an inverse?

What is the sum of an integer and its inverse?
2 / Student’s Book Integers

Comparing and Ordering Integers
Suppose 5 and -5 are on a number line. How manyunits are there from 0 to 5? How many units are therefrom 0 to -5? Two numbers are said
inverse
to eachother

if they have the same distance from 0 on thenumber line, but different direction
.
What are othernumbers that inverse to each other?Let 5 and 3 be on a number line. Which number has alonger distance from 0? Which number has a shorterdistance from 0? What other numbers have a shorterdistance than 5? What other numbers have a longerdistance from 0 than 3?
Remember
equal to
less than
greater than
three isless than five
five isgreater than three

On a horizontal number line, the numbers located onthe left side of another number are always
less

than
those on the right side. For instance, since 3 is on theleft side of 5, 3 is less than 5, written as 3 < 5. Since 5 ison right side of 3, 5 is greater than 3 or 5 > 3.
Example 2
-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Mathematics for Junior High School - Year 7 / 3
decreas

e increase
What if we use a vertical number line?
Change the sign

to <, >, or = on
4

7
Solution:
The number
4 is located on the right side of
7.
-8
-7
-6 -5
-4
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

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