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Thomas Lamb - A Ship Design Procedure

Thomas Lamb - A Ship Design Procedure

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A Ship Design Procedure
By Thomas Lamb
The small number of published articles on the subject of practical ship design suggests that naval architects are reluctant to discuss this most important part of the overall ship production sequence. It is felt that constant discussion of all aspects of ship design would enable progress to be made in what, at the moment, is an empirical art. A ship design procedure is therefore presented in the hope that it will provide a basis for discussion. Each stage in the procedure is discussed in detail in separate sections and both standard forms and data are given. An example is included to illustrate the use of the forms and data.
 there is no generally accepted ship design  procedure in existence. Individual naval architects would  probably set about the task o designing a ship in a nu!ber o dierent ways. Naturally" the !ethods they would use are the ruits o their own experience or  perhaps that o so!eone else who gave away the inor!ation in a !o!ent o weakness. This is said  because" although there have been a nu!ber o papers on ship design techni#ue $%&'(
 over the past decade" the nu!ber is very s!all considering how !any people are engaged in ship design. This suggests that naval architects are reluctant to discuss the design !ethods and data they use" which is !ost unortunate" as the design o a ship is the !ost i!portant part o the overall production se#uence" and constant review and discussion o all aspects o design can only result in beneit to the shipbuilding industry as a hole. *ith this in !ind" a ship design procedure detailing the calculations re#uired ro! the ti!e o receiving a shipowner+s re#uire!ents through the preparation o the  bidding docu!ents is presented in the hope that it will  provide a basis or worthwhile discussion. There is also a selish reason. ,ost o the work re#uired or the paper has been collected and arranged in the author+s ree ti!e during the past ew years and he has been unable to ind the ti!e to keep as up to date as he would have liked. Thereore" it is his hope that naval architects engaged in the !any specialist areas used by ship designers will co!e orward and suggest i!prove!ents to the proposed procedure or his beneit i or no one else. ---------- 
 Assistant hie Naval Architect" ,aryland Shipbuilding / 0rydock o!pany" 1alti!ore" ,d. 
 Nu!bers in brackets designate Reerences at the end o paper. Presented at the Septe!ber %234 ,eeting o the hesapeake Section o T
 The use o co!puters or certain ship calculations is co!!onplace today and it !ay thereore appear to be  behind the ti!es to discuss techni#ues which do not utili<e co!puters. 5owever" as ar as the author is aware" there is no co!plete design progra! in use at the !o!ent" although there are !any people working on co!plete design through production progra!s or co!puter application" and the ti!e !ay co!e when every ship will be produced in this way. It is possible to use co!puters to exa!ine !any solutions to a given set o re#uire!ents #uickly= thereore" existing design progra!s are usually o the opti!i<ation type. They are o the or!" at the !o!ent" that even ater the opti!u! particulars are deter!ined it is still necessary to carry out all the calculations in the proposed procedure. Also" beore  progra!!ing a co!plete design procedure" it is necessary to re&exa!ine the !ethods used to peror! the calculations involved and the relationship between the!. It is hoped that the paper will be a step in this direction. The use o the proposed procedure would provide the naval architect with all the inor!ation re#uired to conidently prepare the contract design docu!ents. I the ship should be built" no urther design calculations would  be necessary and the engineering depart!ents could co!!ence preparation o the working drawings and ordering o !aterials as soon as the contract is signed. I !odel resistance tests are desired" a air lines plan could  be #uickly drawn ro! the preli!inary body plan. It would still be necessary to prepare the detailed hydrostatic" stability particulars and capacities during the  building o the ship. 5owever" the >ustiication" i any is needed" or considering all the ite!s proposed in the design stage is that it would ensure that the ship as de&signed would satisy all the speciied conditions" i built.
A S5IP 0ESI;N PR6E0?RE :A,1
General Appraisal of Design Problem
 The design o a ship by a naval architect is not the initial action in this evolution. 1eore the actual design calculations can be started" it is necessary to know what type" deadweight" capacity and speed o ship are re#uired. These are chosen by the shipowner ater exa!ination o the trade in which the proposed ship is to operate. This exa!ination !ay only be an analysis o existing ships in the trade in order to deter!ine where i!prove!ents could be !ade. 6n the other hand" it !ay be a co!plete ship operating econo!ics investigation. Although it should be the ai! o every ship designer to deter!ine the opti!u! design or a given set o re#uire!ents" this is not done at present to any large extent. This is because !ost ship designers do not have suicient ti!e to exa!ine" by !anual !ethods" the nu!ber o design co!binations necessary or opti!i<ation. 0epending upon his position and place o e!ploy!ent" the unction o a naval architect can vary ro! the design o ships ro! the !ini!u! o speciied re#uire!ents to the checking o a co!plete design prepared by so!eone else. In either case" the order in which the work can be carried out is the sa!e" the only dierence being that the values are either to be deter!ined or checked. 8or eective control and planning" it is essential that a standard design procedure be adopted. As ship design involves !any repetitive calculations" !uch ti!e can be saved by the use o standard calculation or!s" even or the si!plest calculations. The use o standard or!s also ensures adherence to the adopted procedure and enables the average ti!e taken or each calculation in the  procedure to be deter!ined. This" in turn" enables the naval architect to esti!ate the ti!e re#uired to co!plete the pro>ect. The proposed procedure is as ollows@ Preli!inary 0esign deter!ination or check o di!ensions" power" deadweight" capacity" stability and seakindnessB 0etailed Resistance and Propulsion Esti!ate Sketch ;eneral Arrange!ent including preli!inary subdivision i considered necessaryB Preparation o Preli!inary 1ody Plan 0isplace!ent and :1 heck  Preli!inary 5ydrostatics Preli!inary argo and Tank apacities Preli!inary :ight Ship *eights and enters Preli!inary Tri! and Stability Preparation o ;eneral Arrange!ent Tonnage Esti!ate Preparation o Scantlings Plans 0etailed *eights and enters Revised Tri! and Stability  including cross curves o stabilityB :ongitudinal Strength Preparation o Speciications Presentation o Technical 0ata I the co!plete design is to be prepared by one designer" the oregoing se#uence could be adhered to. 5owever" it is usual or a tea! to work on the pro>ect= thereore" the irst three ite!s would be calculated by the naval architect and the re!ainder o the work divided  between three designers as shown in 8ig. %" which is a low diagra! o the proposed procedure. Each stage in the design procedure will be urther discussed in separate sections. An exa!ple is given to illustrate the use o the or!s and the data. The outline speciication or the exa!ple is given in the Appendix.
Fig. 1. Flow diagram of design procedure
Preliminary Design Calculations
 It is the purpose o the preli!inary design calculations to deter!ine di!ensions" hull or! and power to satisy given speed" capacity" deadweight and endurance re#uire!ents. The purpose o the detailed design calculations which ollow the preli!inary design calculations is to check that the particulars deter!ined in the preli!inary stage satisy the speciied re#uire!ents
A S5IP 0ESI;N PR6E0?RE :A,1and also to develop" in detail" a design capable o !eeting the special re#uire!ents desired. The preli!inary design stage is thus the CcornerstoneD o the whole procedure. I this stage does not consider all the i!portant ite!s or i the data on which the calculations are based are inade#uate or the purpose" it is  probable that !odiications to the preli!inary deter!ined values will be ound necessary as the detailed design  progresses" The a!ount o repetition o detailed design calculations" and thereore wasted ti!e" will depend on the stage in the design procedure at which the inade#uacy is discovered.
Fig. 2. Diagram showing interdependence of parameters in preliminary design
 The calculations !ade in the preli!inary design stage can be #uite co!plicated due to the interdependence o the various actors involved" as shown i 8ig. ). To avoid ti!e&wasting repetition" the order o the calculations !ust  be arranged so that each step logically ollows the  previous steps and only uses values deter!ined in these steps. It is o great assistance to have a su!!ary sheet on which the speciied particulars are entered beore the design co!!ences and" as each stage in the design calculations is co!pleted" the relevant values deter!ined are entered on the sheet. The su!!ary then acts as a reerence" co!parison and progress sheet during the  period o the design. 8or! I is a su!!ary sheet suitable or this purpose. All the or!s reerred to appear in the Appendix.B. It is possible to derive suitable di!ensions or a design  by considering only three sets o para!eters" but it is not  possible to say ro! such an exa!ination that the resulting design is the opti!u! design.
 ___________________________________ Nomenclature  ___________________________________ 
The sy!bols listed herein are used in the  paper without urther description. 6thers abbreviations and sy!bols which are not given in the No!encaleture are identiied elsewhere in the paper.
 dhp shp ship correlation actor  propulsive eiciencydelivered horsepower or power delivered to propeller shat horsepower 1,
 A 
 5eight o transverse !etacenter above 91area i.e." waterplane areaBtransverse radius o gyration o waterplane
 length between perpendiculars
 block coeicientd drat: length between perpendiculars in or!ulasshp
 !axi!u! continuous shat horsepower 
 longitudinal radius o gyration o the ship+s !ass1 breadth !olded oship;,
 transverse !etacentric heights speciic gravity osalt wate0 depth !olded to upper!ost continuous deck EN
 e#uip!ent nu!eral or superstructures  H.4 x Jl
 x h
 height o !etacenter above keel or baselinedwt deadweightl
 and h
 superstructure total length andheight respectively
 coeicient to take account oadded !ass in heave:1 longitudinal center o buoyancyehp eective horsepower91 vertical center obuoyancyPP controllable&pitch propelleK resistance coeicient  ')L.% x ehp M 9
 x O
 E#uip!ent nu!eral or deckhouses  H.L x Jl
 x h
Bc coeicient to take account oadded !ass in pitch

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