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Table Of Contents

INDEX
kettle flux
ZACLON® Sulfate Control
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FIGURE 1: Effect of Acid Strength and Temperature on Pickling Rate
FIGURE 2: Ratio, Galvanizing Quality, and Zinc Waste
FIGURE 4: Ratio and Dross with Dry Time
FIGURE 5: Preflux Concentration and Density
FIGURE 6: Dross and Coating Weight from Iron Carryover
FIGURE 7: Flux Systems' Phase Diagram
FIGURE 8: Foam Blanket Cross Section
TABLE 2: Density Conversions
FIGURE 9: Typical Galvanized Coating Cross-Section
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION
GENERAL
DESCRIPTION OF ZACLON GALVANIZING FLUXES
GENERAL PURPOSE FLUXES
ZACLON® F:
ZACLON® K:
ZACLON® CS:
ZACLON® C:
TOP FLUX MAINTENANCE/HIGH ACTIVITY FLUX
ZACLON® 2N:
Ammonium Chloride:
START-UP FLUX
ZACLON® Start Up Flux:
MINIMAL FUMING FLUXES
ZACLON® AF:
ZACLON® A:
ZACLON® AB:
SPECIALTY FLUXES
ZACLON® W:
ZACLON® Sulfate Control:
OTHER INFORMATION
SECTION 2. SURFACE PREPARATION
BASIC INFORMATION
PART 1: MECHANICAL SURFACE PREPARATION
General Information
Abrasive Blasting
Barrel and Vibratory Finishing
Brush and Hand Finishing
Grinding and Polishing
PART 2: CHEMICAL SURFACE PREPARATIONS
Alkaline Cleaning
Introduction
Chemicals
Other Cleaning Methods
Rinsing
Environmental
Acid Cleaning
Alkaline Derusting
Salt Bath Descaling
General
Action of the Pickling Acid
Sulfuric Acid:
Hydrochloric Acid:
Choice of Acid
Factors Affecting Pickling Rate
lAcid concentration
Acid Concentration
Sulfuric Acid Concentrations:
Hydrochloric Acid Concentration:
Iron Concentration
Agitation
Inhibitor Choice and Concentration
General Pickling Procedure
Control Tests
Equipment
Rinsing After Alkaline Cleaning
Rinsing After Pickling
Improving Rinsing Operations
SECTION 3: FLUXING
How Fluxes Work—Some Flux Chemistry
Flux Types, Ratios, and ACN's
1) Iron oxide removal
2) Reaction of flux with base steel
3) Skimmings/Top flux reaction
4) Flux reaction with Zinc
5) Dross formation
6) Smoke and Fume Formation
Fumes and Smoke in Galvanizing
PART 2: PREFLUXING AND “DRY” GALVANIZING
Choosing a Preflux
Ratio, Galvanizing Quality, and Zinc Waste
Preflux Concentration
Preparing the Preflux
Temperature
Drying and Preheating
PART 3: CONTROL AND PURIFICATION OF FLUX SOLUTIONS
Sampling the Preflux and Pickling Baths
Measuring Flux Concentration by Density of Flux Solution
Procedure
Acidity and pH in Flux Solutions
Measuring Free Acid Concentration in Flux Solutions
Principle
Preflux Contaminants: Iron and Sulfate
Costs of Iron Contamination in the Preflux
In-place Chemical Purification Treatment of Flux Solutions
Purification Methods:
PART 4: KETTLE OR TOP FLUX AND “WET” GALVANIZING
Activity in Wet Galvanizing: The Phase Relationship and the Flux Blanket
Minimal Fume Wet Galvanizing
1. Surface Preparation
2. Prefluxing
3. Galvanizing Operation for Wet Galvanizing
4. Operators
Surface Preparation
Cleaning
Prefluxing
Top Flux Composition and Choosing a Top Flux
Top Flux Foaming Agents and Top Flux Depth
Top Flux Viscosity
Top Flux Galvanizing Techniques
Establishing the Kettle Flux
Top Flux Additions
Use of Kettle Dam
Minimal Fume Fluxes (Low Activity Fluxes)
Operators
PART 5: COMPARISON OF WET AND DRY GALVANIZING
Drying
Fuming
Zinc Bath Temperature
Movement of Work Through Kettle
HOT DIP ZINC COATINGS AND ALLOYS
Typical Coating Cross-Section
Zinc Bath Alloys
Metallic Additives
ALLOY STEELS
SILICON-KILLED AND REACTIVE STEELS
General Background
Processing Methods for Reactive Steels
Low Temperature Galvanizing
High Temperature Galvanization
Special Alloy Baths for Reactive Steels
Nickel Additions
Aluminum Additions
GALVANIZING BY-PRODUCTS
Zinc Ash
Flux Skimmings
HOLDING THE LINE ON GALVANIZING COSTS
SECTION 5: FINISHING AND POST-TREATMENTS
SHAKING OR CENTRIFUGING
QUENCHING
WET STORAGE STAIN (WHITE RUST)
Processing and Storage Considerations
Chemical Treatments to Prevent White Rust
General Mechanism
ZACLON® WRP and Metal Silicates
Silicate Chemistry
Silicate Mechanism
Advantages to Silicate Treatment
Disadvantages to Silicate Solution
Environmental Concerns
Use of ZACLON® WRP
Use Levels
Processing
Chromates
Chromate Use
Chromate Advantages
Chromate Disadvantages
SPECIFICATIONS FOR GALVANIZED WORK
SECTION 6. TROUBLE SHOOTING
GALVANIZING COATING DEFECTS
GALVANIZING COATING DEFECTS AND SOLUTIONS
Poor Adhesion
Dull Gray Coatings
Rough Coatings
Uneven and Lumpy Coatings
Blisters
Uncoated Areas
Flux Spots, Flux Inclusions
White Rust
GALVANIZING PROCESS PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Excessive Smoking
Any Operation
Prefluxes/Dry Kettle Operations
Top Fluxes/Wet Kettle
Excessive Dross Formation
Fume Control around the Kettle
WATER POLLUTION
Disposal Without Treatment
Contract Disposal
Deep-Well Injection
Miscellaneous Disposal Methods
Disposal With Treatment
Neutralization and Precipitation
Solidification
Acid Recovery
Purification
Ion Exchange
Electrolytic Recovery (Electroplating)
Electrodialysis
Disposal for Other Chemical Use
Zaclon Recycling Programs
SECTION 8: COMPANY AND PRODUCT INFORMATION
SECTION 9: APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: TOTAL ZINC DETERMINATION
ZACLEAN CONCENTRATE
ZACLON® SULFATE CONTROL FLUX
ZACLON® WETTING AGENT
ZACLON® WETTING AGENT A
ZACLON WRP®
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Zaclon Galvanizing Handbook

Zaclon Galvanizing Handbook

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Published by chellashiva
GALVANIZING
GALVANIZING

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Published by: chellashiva on Feb 25, 2014
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