Shien Ransel F. Villaruel: Christian Methodical Camaraderie (C. M. C.)Pangasinan State University
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Branches of philosophy
The following branches are the main areas of study:
investigates the nature of being and the world. Traditional branches arecosmology andontology.
is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, and whether knowledge is possible. Among its central concerns has been the challenge posed byskepticismand therelationships betweentruth,belief , and justification.
, or 'moral philosophy', is concerned with questions of how persons ought to act or if suchquestions are answerable. The main branches of ethics aremeta-ethics,normative ethics, and
applied ethics.Meta-ethicsconcerns the nature of ethical thought, comparison of various ethical
systems, whether there are absolute ethical truths, and how such truths could be known. Ethics isalso associated with the idea of morality.Plato's early dialogues include a search for definitions of
is the study of government and the relationship of individuals andcommunities to the state. It includes questions about justice, the good, law, property, and the rightsand obligations of the citizen.
deals with beauty, art, enjoyment, sensory-emotional values, perception, and matters of taste and sentiment.
deals with patterns of thinking that lead from true premises to true conclusions, originallydeveloped in Ancient Greece. Beginning in the late 19th century,mathematicianssuch asFrege
focused on a mathematical treatment of logic, and today the subject of logic has two broaddivisions:mathematical logic(formal symbolic logic) and what is now called philosophical logic.
deals with the nature of the mind and its relationship to the body, and istypified by disputes betweendualismandmaterialism.In recent years there have been increasing
similarities, between this branch of philosophy andcognitive science.
is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language.
is the study of general and fundamental problemsconcerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind,and language.
Philosophy comes from theGreekφιλοσοφία [philosophia],which literally translates to "love of wisdom".
* Philosophy of religion
is a branch of philosophythat asks questions aboutreligion. As with all philosophies, the topicsat hand are generated by those whoparticipate. In the philosophy of religion,these may include but are not limited to thenature and existence of God, religiouslanguage, miracles,prayer, the problem of
evil, and how religion and other value-
systemssuch asethicsinterrelate. Religious
philosophy, onthe other hand, is thephilosophicalthinking that is inspired and
directed by religion, such asChristianphilosophyandIslamic philosophy. As an
alternative, philosophy of religion is thephilosophical thinking
religion. It isdesined such that it can be carried out